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: This book re-examines the territorial dispute between Japan and Russia, the so-called Â¿Northern TerritoriesÂ¿ issue, by reinterpreting the role of the Indigenous Ainu of Japan. In studying Ainu history and historiography, one finds that the long-standing emphasis on Wajin-based legitimacy of rule and the annexation of northern areas has been forgotten in what amounts to a historical amnesia concerning the role and status of the Ainu. Focusing on Ainu understandings of local, regional/national and international historical events underscores the importance of de-nationalizing history by integrating the important perspectives of Indigeneity. The preponderance of nation-based studies has seriously inhibited the analysis of historical phenomena involving Indigenous peoples. This study offers a new perspective on the history of this important dispute and illustrates the importance of incorporating Indigenous perspectives and experience within traditional academic studies. Highly original, this analysis will be essential reading for students and scholars of History, Japan Studies, Native Studies and International Relations.