Bernard Reilly describes the rising Christian kingdoms of Leon-Castilla, Aragon, Barcelona and Portugal and shows how they were engaged in a struggle on several fronts. As they vied with one another for control of the old Islamic stronghold of the center and north, they were also in continuous conflict with the Murabit and Muwahhid rulers, while striving to come to terms with the French, the Papacy and the Italian maritime powers.
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