Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism | Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy | Nosql and SQL Data Modeling | Form+Code in Design, Art, and Architecture | Designing Data-intensive Applications | Graphesis | Beautiful Data
Episodes in the history of data, from early modern math problems to today's inescapable âdataveillance,â that demonstrate the dependence of data on culture.
We live in the era of Big Data, with storage and transmission capacity measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes (where peta- denotes a quadrillion, or a thousand trillion). Data collection is constant and even insidious, with every click and every âlikeâ stored somewhere for something. This book reminds us that data is anything but âraw,â that we shouldn't think of data as a natural resource but as a cultural one that needs to be generated, protected, and interpreted. The book's essays describe eight episodes in the history of data from the predigital to the digital. Together they address such issues as the ways that different kinds of data and different domains of inquiry are mutually defining; how data are variously âcookedâ in the processes of their collection and use; and conflicts over what canâor can'tâbe âreducedâ to data. Contributors discuss the intellectual history of data as a concept; describe early financial modeling and some unusual sources for astronomical data; discover the prehistory of the database in newspaper clippings and index cards; and consider contemporary âdataveillanceâ of our online habits as well as the complexity of scientific data curation.
Geoffrey C. Bowker, Kevin R. Brine, Ellen Gruber Garvey, Lisa Gitelman, Steven J. Jackson, Virginia Jackson, Markus Krajewski, Mary Poovey, Rita Raley, David Ribes, Daniel Rosenberg, Matthew Stanley, Travis D. Williams
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