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Tables of Contents for Control Problems in Robotics and Automation
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
List of Contributors
xvii
 
Force Control: A Bird's Eye View
1
18
Joris De Schutter
Herman Bruyninckx
Wen-Hong Zhu
Mark W. Spong
1. Introduction
1
1
2. Basics of Force Control
2
6
2.1 Basic Approaches
2
1
2.2 Examples
3
1
2.3 Basic Implementations
4
2
2.4 Properties and Performance of Force Control
6
2
3. Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Force Control
8
5
3.1 Geometric Properties
8
1
3.2 Constrained Robot Motion
9
1
3.3 Multi-Dimensional Force Control Concepts
10
1
3.4 Task Specification and Control Design
11
2
4. Robust and Adaptive Force Control
13
2
4.1 Geometric Errors
13
1
4.2 Dynamics Errors
14
1
5. Future Research
15
4
Multirobots and Cooperative Systems
19
16
Masaru Uchiyama
1. Introduction
19
2
2. Dynamics of Multirobots and Cooperative Systems
21
3
3. Derivation of Task Vectors
24
3
3.1 External and Internal Forces/Moments
24
1
3.2 External and Internal Velocities
25
1
3.3 External and Internal Positions/Orientations
26
1
4. Cooperative Control
27
3
4.1 Hybrid Position/Force Control
27
1
4.2 Load Sharing
28
2
5. Recent Research and Future Directions
30
1
6. Conclusions
31
4
Robotic Dexterity via Nonholonomy
35
16
Antonio Bicchi
Alessia Marigo
Domenico Prattichizzo
1. Introduction
35
2
2. Nonholonomy on Purpose
37
5
3. Systems of Rolling Bodies
42
4
3.1 Regular Surfaces
42
2
3.2 Polyhedral Objects
44
2
4. Discussion and Open Problems
46
5
Control for Teleoperation and Haptic Interfaces
51
16
Septimiu E. Salcudean
1. Teleoperation and Haptic Interfaces
51
1
2. Teleoperation Controller Design
52
9
2.1 Modeling Teleoperation Systems
52
2
2.2 Robust Stability Conditions
54
1
2.3 Performance Specifications
54
1
2.4 Four-Channel Controller Architecture
55
1
2.5 Controller Design via Standard Loop Shaping Tools
56
1
2.6 Parametric Optimization-based Controller Design
57
1
2.7 Nonlinear Transparent Control
58
1
2.8 Passivation for Delays and Interconnectivity
58
1
2.9 Adaptive Teleoperation Control
59
1
2.10 Dual Hybrid Teleoperation
60
1
2.11 Velocity Control with Force Feedback
61
1
3. Teleoperation Control Design Challenges
61
1
4. Teleoperation in Virtual Environments
62
1
5. Conclusion
63
4
Recent Progress in Fuzzy Control
67
16
Feng-Yih Hsu
Li-Chen Fu
1. Introduction
67
1
2. Mathematical Foundations
68
1
3. Enhanced Fuzzy Control
69
11
3.1 Learning-based Fuzzy Control
69
3
3.2 Approximation-based Fuzzy Control
72
8
4. Conclusion
80
3
Trajectory Control of Flexible Manipulators
83
22
Alessandro De Luca
1. Introduction
83
1
2. Robots with Elastic Joints
84
8
2.1 Dynamic Modeling
85
1
2.2 Generalized Inversion Algorithm
86
6
3. Robots with Flexible Links
92
10
3.1 Dynamic Modeling
92
2
3.2 Stable Inversion Control
94
5
3.3 Experimental Results
99
3
4. Conclusions
102
3
Dynamics and Control of Bipedal Robots
105
14
Yildirim Hurmuzlu
1. How Does a Multi-link System Achieve Locomotion?
105
3
1.1 Inverted Pendulum Models
106
1
1.2 Impact and Switching
107
1
2. Equations of Motion and Stability
108
5
2.1 Equations of Motion During the Continuous Phase of Motion
108
1
2.2 Impact and Switching Equations
109
1
2.3 Stability of the Locomotion
110
3
3. Control of Bipedal Robots
113
1
3.1 Active Control
113
1
3.2 Passive Control
114
1
4. Open Problems and Challenges in the Control of Bipedal Robots
114
5
Free-Floating Robotic Systems
119
16
Olav Egeland
Kristin Y. Pettersen
1. Kinematics
119
2
2. Equation of Motion
121
4
3. Total System Momentum
125
1
4. Velocity Kinematics and Jacobians
125
1
5. Control Deviation in Rotation
126
1
6. Euler Parameters
127
1
7. Passivity Properties
127
1
8. Coordination of Motion
128
1
9. Nonholonomic Issues
128
7
Underactuated Mechanical Systems
135
16
Mark W. Spong
1. Introduction
135
1
2. Lagrangian Dynamics
136
4
2.1 Equilibrium Solutions and Controllability
139
1
3. Partial Feedback Linearization
140
1
3.1 Collocated Linearization
140
1
3.2 Non-collocated Linearization
140
1
4. Cascade Systems
141
6
4.1 Passivity and Energy Control
142
1
4.2 Lyapunov Functions and Forwarding
143
2
4.3 Hybrid and Switching Control
145
1
4.4 Nonholonomic Systems
145
2
5. Conclusions
147
4
Trends in Mobile Robot and Vehicle Control
151
26
Carlos Canudas de Wit
1. Introduction
151
1
2. Preliminaries
152
1
3. Automatic Parking
153
4
4. Path Following
157
5
5. Visual-based Control System
162
2
6. Multibody Vehicle Control
164
8
6.1 Multibody Train Vehicles
164
4
6.2 Car Platooning in Highways and Transportation Systems
168
4
7. Conclusions
172
5
Vision-based Robot Control
177
16
Peter I. Corke
Gregory D. Hager
1. Introduction
177
1
2. Fundamentals
178
3
2.1 Camera Imaging and Geometry
178
1
2.2 Image Features and the Image Feature Parameter Space
179
1
2.3 Camera Sensor
180
1
3. Vision in Control
181
5
3.1 Position-based Approach
182
1
3.2 Image-based Approach
182
3
3.3 Dynamics
185
1
4. Control and Estimation in Vision
186
3
4.1 Image Feature Parameter Extraction
186
2
4.2 Image Jacobian Estimation
188
1
4.3 Other
188
1
5. The Future
189
1
5.1 Benefits from Technology Trends
189
1
5.2 Research Challenges
189
1
6. Conclusion
190
3
Sensor Fusion
193
16
Thomas C. Henderson
Mohamed Dekhil
Robert R. Kessler
Martin L. Griss
1. Introduction
193
1
2. State of the Art Issues in Sensor Fusion
194
2
2.1 Theory
195
1
2.2 Architecture
195
1
2.3 Agents
195
1
2.4 Robotics
195
1
2.5 Navigation
195
1
3. Wide Area Sensor Networks
196
3
3.1 Component Frameworks
197
2
4. Robustness
199
6
4.1 Instrumented Sensor Systems
201
1
4.2 Adaptive Control
202
3
5. Conclusions
205
4
Discrete Event Theory for the Monitoring and Control of Robotic Systems
209
18
Brenan J. McCarragher
1. Introduction and Motivation
209
1
2. Discrete Event Modelling
210
5
2.1 Modelling using Constraints
210
2
2.2 An Assembly Example
212
1
2.3 Research Challenges
213
2
3. Discrete Event Control Synthesis
215
5
3.1 Controller Constraints
215
1
3.2 Command Synthesis
216
1
3.3 Event-level Adaptive Control
217
1
3.4 Research Challenges
218
2
4. Process Monitoring
220
7
4.1 Monitoring Techniques
220
1
4.2 Control of Sensory Perception
221
1
4.3 Research Challenges
222
5
Scheduling of Flexible Manufacturing Systems
227
18
Peter B. Luh
1. Introduction
227
2
1.1 Classification of FMS
228
1
1.2 Key Issues in Operating an FMS
228
1
1.3 Scope of This Chapter
229
1
2. Problem Formulation
229
3
2.1 Formulation of a Job Shop Scheduling Problem
229
1
2.2 Differences between FMS and Job Shop Scheduling
230
2
3. Solution Methodology
232
1
3.1 Approaches for Job Shop Scheduling
232
1
3.2 Methods for FMS Scheduling
233
1
4. A Case Study of the Apparel Production
233
7
4.1 Description of the FMS for Apparel Production
234
1
4.2 Mathematical Problem Formulation
235
2
4.3 Solution Methodology
237
2
4.4 Numerical Results
239
1
5. New Promising Research Approaches
240
5
Task Synchronization via Integration of Sensing, Planning, and Control in a Manufacturing Work-cell
245
16
Tzyh-Jong Tarn
Mumin Song
Ning Xi
1. Introduction
245
3
2. A Max-Plus Algebra Model
248
4
3. Centralized Multi-Sensor Data Fusion
252
2
4. Event-based Planning and Control
254
3
5. Experimental Results
257
2
6. Conclusions
259
2
Advanced Air Traffic Automation: A Case Study in Distributed Decentralized Control
261
 
Claire J. Tomlin
George J. Pappas
Jana Kosecka
John Lygeros
Shankar S. Sastry
1. New Challenges: Intelligent Multi-agent Systems
261
3
1.1 Analysis and Design of Multi-agent Hybrid Control Systems
263
1
2. Introduction to Air Traffic Management
264
2
3. A Distributed Decentralized ATM
266
1
4. Advanced Air Transportation Architectures
267
4
4.1 Automation on the Ground
268
1
4.2 Automation in the Air
268
3
5. Conflict Resolution
271
21
5.1 Noncooperative Conflict Resolution
272
4
5.2 Resolution by Angular Velocity
276
4
5.3 Resolution by Linear Velocity
280
2
5.4 Cooperative Conflict Resolution
282
10
5.5 Verification of the Maneuvers
292
1
6. Conclusions
292