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Tables of Contents for Adventure Programming
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Introduction
xiii
 
Simon Priest
Section 1 Introduction to Adventure Programming
1
42
Recreational Outdoor Adventure Programs
3
6
David J. Webb
Introduction
3
1
Program Goals, Benefits, Services, and Models
3
3
Summary
6
2
References
8
1
Educational Adventure and Schooling
9
4
Bert Horwood
Developmental Adventure Programs
13
16
Jude Hirsch
Inclusivity Consulting Group. Inc.
15
1
Strasser & Partners
16
2
Project Adventure Inc.
18
1
YMCA Camp Pinccrest
19
2
Georgia College and State University Quest Program
21
1
Audubon Expedition Institute: An Extraordinary Educational Journey
22
1
Tim Hortons Children's Foundation
22
1
Outward Bound
23
1
Essential Features and Developmental Adventure Programs
24
2
References
26
3
Adventure as Therapy
29
10
H. L. ``Lee'' Gillis
T. Martin Ringer
Intrduction
29
1
An Overview of Adventure Therapy
29
1
Types of Adventure Therapy Programs
30
1
Common Characteristics of Adventure Therapy Activities and Programs
30
1
The Difference Between Recreational Adventure Programs and Adventure Therapy Programs
31
2
Difficulties in Working With Adventure for Therapeutic Purposes
33
1
Opportunities for Psychotherapists
33
1
Research Opportunities in Adventure Therapy
33
1
Conclusion
34
1
References
35
4
A World of Adventure Education
39
4
Joseph Bailey
Introduction
39
1
A Definition of Adventure Education
39
1
Adventure and Education
40
1
The Adventure Experience
40
1
Conclusion
41
1
References
42
1
Section 2 Historical Perspectives on Adventure Programming
43
66
Philosophy in Practice: A History of Adventure Programming
45
10
Edward Raiola
Marty O'Keefe
Introduction
45
1
Adventure Education---Toward a Definition
46
1
Historical Development
46
4
Emergence of Adventure Education
50
1
Recent History
51
1
Future Challenges and Opportunities
52
1
References
52
3
The Creation of Outward Bound
55
10
Joshua L. Miner
Kurt Hahn
65
6
Anthony Richards
The Decline of Fitness
67
1
The Decline of Initiative and Enterprise
67
1
The Decline of Memory and Imagination
68
1
The Decline of Skill and Care
68
1
The Decline of Self-Discipline
68
1
The Decline of Compassion
69
1
References
70
1
A History of the Association for Experiential Education
71
6
Daniel Garvey
The Formation of an Association
72
1
The Development of AEE and the Struggle for Survival
73
1
The Certification Issue
74
1
Current Times and Future Directions of AEE
75
1
References
76
1
The Wilderness Education Association: History and Change
77
8
Cheryl E. Teeters
Frank Lupton
The National Outdoor Leadership School: 40,000 Wilderness Experiences and Counting
85
8
Delmar W. Bachert
References
90
3
Project Adventure: A Brief History
93
10
Dick Prouty
Evaluation
94
1
National Demonstration Site Award
95
1
Adventure-Based Counseling
96
1
Transition to Independence
97
1
Steady Growth
97
1
Southern Office
98
1
Therapuetic Program Growth
98
1
Executive Reach, Corporate Training
99
1
The Activity Base
100
1
Planning for the Future
101
2
Development Training in the United Kingdom
103
6
Chris Loynes
Hahn's Postwar Influence
104
1
The Birth of Outdoor Education in Schools
104
1
Field Studies
104
1
Development and Change
105
1
The Growth of Development Training
105
1
Experiental Learning
106
1
Residentials and Expeditions
106
1
Diversity
107
1
Relevance
108
1
Section 3 Foundations of Adventure Programming
109
38
The Semantics of Adventure Programming
111
4
Simon Priest
Outdoor Education
111
1
Environmental Education
111
1
Adventure Education
111
1
Outdoor Recreation
112
1
Leisure
112
1
Adventure
112
1
Risk
113
1
Competence
113
1
Facilitated Adventure
114
1
Philosophy of Adventure Education
115
8
Jasper S. Hunt, Jr.
References
122
1
Ethics of Adventure Programming
123
10
Jasper S. Hunt, Jr.
Scott D. Wurdinger
Case Study One---1996 Mount Everest Tragedy
128
1
Case Study Two---University-Sponsored Building Contest
129
1
Case Study Three---Money Versus Quality
130
1
References
131
2
Outdoor Adventure Programming and Moral Development
133
8
Daniel Garvey
What Is Moral or Just?
133
1
The Need for Education to Be Concerned with Moral Development
134
3
Designing a Moral Development Program
137
2
Conclusion
139
1
References
139
2
Every Trail Has a Story: The Heritage Context as Adventure
141
6
Robert Henderson
A Journal Excerpt
142
1
The Specific Heritage Context
142
1
The General Heritage Context
143
2
Bibliography
145
1
References
145
2
Section 4 The Social Psychology of Adventure Programming
147
32
The Essence of Adventure
149
4
William Quinn
References
151
2
Adventure and the Flow Experience
153
6
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
Isabella Csikszentmihalyi
Characteristics of the Flow Experience
153
3
The Importance of the Flow Experience
156
1
Flow and Adventure Education
156
1
References
157
2
The Adventure Experience Paradigm
159
4
Simon Priest
References
162
1
New Directions for Inquiry Into Self-Concept and Adventure Experiences
163
6
Kimberley Ann Klint
Self-Concept
164
1
Self-Efficacy
164
1
Perceived Competence
165
2
Future Research
167
1
References
168
1
Practical Stories in a Theoretical Framework
169
10
Peter Martin
Biases in Attributions
172
1
Self-Attributions?
173
1
Self-Efficacy
174
1
Sources of Self-Efficacy
175
2
Summary
177
1
In the End
177
1
References
178
1
Section 5 The Learning in Adventure Programming
179
56
Experiential Learning
181
6
Richard J. Kraft
Introduction
181
1
Behavioral Learning Theories
182
1
Social Learning Theory
182
1
Cognitive Learning Theories
182
1
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
183
1
Dewey and Progressive Education
183
1
Piaget and Developmental Theory
184
1
Coleman: Information Assimilation Versus Experiential Learning
184
1
Resnick: Learning in School and out
185
1
Conclusions
186
1
References
186
1
Integrating Theory and Application in Experiential Learning
187
6
Scott D. Wurdinger
Simon Priest
History and Evolution of Experiential Learning
187
2
Analyzing Experiential Learning Models
189
2
Proactive Experiential Learning
191
1
References
192
1
Stage Development Theory in Adventure Programming
193
8
L-Jay Fine
Importance of Existing State Development Theory in Adventure Education
193
1
Stage Development Theories
194
3
Moral Development
197
1
Problems and Concerns With Stage Development Theory
198
1
Summary
198
1
References
199
2
Teaching by Inquiry
201
4
Donald R. Hammerman
Inquiry Training
201
1
Instruction Through Inquiry
202
1
Additional Considerations
203
1
A Final Word
204
1
Sequencing the Adventure Experience
205
10
Christian Bisson
Uniqueness or Universality
205
1
The Sequential Process
206
7
Conclusion
213
1
References
213
2
Six Generations of Facilitation Skills
215
4
Simon Priest
Michael A. Gass
Introduction
215
1
Six Generations
215
3
Conclusion
218
1
Reference
218
1
Processing the Adventure Experience
219
8
Clifford E. Knapp
Introduction
219
1
Ways of Learning
219
1
Hard and Soft Skills
220
1
Suggested Group Norms for Community Building
220
1
Barriers to Community Building Objectives
221
1
The Role of the Facilitator in Processing
221
1
Preplanning the Processing Phase
221
1
Additional Group Issues to Process
221
1
Suggested Steps in Processing
222
1
Alternatives Modes for Processing
223
1
Some Cautions to Consider
224
1
Summary
224
1
References
224
3
Transfer of Learning in Adventure Programming
227
8
Michael A. Gass
Theories Concerning Transfer
228
2
A Program Model for Transfer
230
1
Factors and Techniques That Enhance Transfer of Learning
230
3
Conclusion
233
1
References
233
2
Section 6 The Leadership of Adventure Programming
235
28
Outdoor Leadership Competencies
237
4
Simon Priest
Definitions
237
1
Hard Skills
237
1
Soft Skills
238
1
Meta Skills
238
1
Reference
239
2
Outdoor Leadership Curricula
241
6
Edward Raiola
Deborah Sugerman
Research in Outdoor Leadership
241
1
Current Practice
242
2
Striking a Balance
244
1
References
245
2
Accreditation and Certification: Questions for an Advancing Profession
247
6
Michael A. Gass
Factors and Indicators Influencing the Professionalism of Adventure Programming in the United States
247
1
Methods of Verifying Professionalism: Certification and Accreditation
248
1
The Association for Experiential Education Accreditation Process
249
2
Conclusion
251
1
References
251
2
Leadership for Community Building
253
10
Denise Mitten
Introduction
253
1
The Importance of Community Building
254
1
Putting It Together Consciously (What We Want in a Community)
255
1
Philosophical Underpinnings or Early Women Pave the Way
256
1
Power Differences
257
1
What This Means for the Leadership
257
1
Ways Leaders Display Caring
258
1
How to Build a Group---Creating Healthy Group Cohesion
259
2
Summary
261
1
References
261
2
Section 7 The Management of Adventure Programming
263
56
Starting Your New Outdoor Program
265
4
Phil Costello
The Idea Stage
265
1
The Action Plan
265
2
Getting off the Ground
267
1
Considerations
267
2
Management and Administration of Outdoor Programs
269
4
Ron Watters
Personnel Management
269
1
Program Planning
270
1
Volunteer Management
270
1
Program Recordkeeping
271
1
Politics of Outdoor Programming
271
1
References
272
1
Adventure Risk Management
273
12
Terry J. Brown
Risk Definition
274
1
Risk Responsibility
274
1
Risk Data
274
2
Risk Sources
276
1
Risk Management Process
277
2
Risk Management Plan
279
2
Risk Control Strategies
281
1
Emotional Safety
282
1
Conclusion
283
1
References
283
2
Legal Liability and Risk Management
285
14
Betty van der Smissen
Charles ``Reb'' Gregg
The Philosophy and Role of Risk
285
2
Some Legal Concepts
287
4
The Risk Management Plan
291
4
Resolving the Dispute
295
2
Legal Responsibilities Require Professionalism
297
1
Reference
297
2
Improving Program Quality Through Evaluation
299
10
Alan Warner
Past Lessons
299
1
Present Challenges
300
4
Obstacles to Productive and Broad-Based Evaluation
304
2
Putting the Ideas Into Practice
306
1
References
307
2
Reserach in Adventure Programming
309
10
Simon Priest
Paradigms
309
2
Methods
311
1
Trustworthiness
312
1
Statistics
313
1
Patterns
313
1
Research and Evaluation
314
1
Future Directions
315
2
References
317
2
Section 8 The Setting for Adventure Programming
319
38
Wilderness
321
4
John C. Miles
References
323
2
Rescue-Free Wilderness Areas
325
6
Leo McAvoy
Philosophical Basic for Rescue-Free Areas
325
1
Need for Rescue-Free Areas
326
1
Experiential Benefits of Rescue-Free Areas
327
1
Worst Case Scenario
327
1
Response to Common Criticisms of Rescue-Free Areas
328
1
Conclusion
328
1
References
329
2
Urban Adventure in 1989 and Reflections 10 Years After
331
10
Steve Proudman
Why Urban Adventure Programming?
331
2
Shifting Paradigms---Creating Urban Programs
333
2
Emergent Issues for Discussion
335
1
Ten Years After---Reflections
336
2
References
338
3
Artificial Climbing Environments
341
6
Aram Attarian
Introduction
341
1
Climbing Walls
341
3
Other Climbing Activities
344
1
References
345
2
Ropes Courses: A Constructed Adventure Environment
347
6
Karl Rohnke
Low- and High-Challenge Course Events
349
1
Ropes Course Rationale
350
1
Indoor Ropes Courses
350
1
Evolution of Ropes Challenge Facilities
351
2
Kinesthetic Awareness: At Home in Our Bodies
353
4
Jackie Kiewa
Introduction
353
1
The Technological Body
353
1
Mind and Body Alienation
354
1
Kinesthetic Awareness
355
1
References
356
1
Section 9 The Clients of Adventure Programming
357
74
Adventure Education for Teaching Cross-Cultural Perspectives
359
6
Sharon J. Washington
Nina S. Roberts
Introduction
359
1
Historical Perspective
360
1
Understanding the Need
360
1
Reflective Assessment of Leadership Issues on Diversity
360
1
Professional Development
361
1
A Three-Dimensional Approach to Diversity Education
361
1
Making a Commitment
362
1
Conclusion
362
1
Suggested Resources
362
1
References
363
2
The Use of Adventure-Based Programs With At-Risk Youth
365
8
Jennifer Davis-Berman
Dene Berman
Adolescence
365
1
At-Risk Youth
365
1
Programs
366
1
A Look at Effectiveness
367
2
Critical and Emerging Issues
369
1
Summing Up
369
1
References
370
3
Adventure Programs in Higher Education
373
12
Michael A. Gass
Introduction
373
1
Incoming Student Orientation Programs
373
4
Continuing Student Orientation Programs
377
1
Adventure Programs for Resident Assistants
378
3
Other Adventure Programs in Higher Education
381
1
Conclusion
382
1
References
382
3
Programming Adventure for Older Adults
385
4
Deborah Sugerman
Biological Aspects of Aging
385
1
Sociological Aspects of Aging
386
1
Psychological Aspects of Aging
386
1
Planning Adventure Programs
386
1
Running the Program
387
1
Conclusion
388
1
References
388
1
Women's Outdoor Adventures
389
6
Karen Warren
The Myth of Accessibility
389
1
The Myth of Egalitarianism
390
1
The Myth of Square One
391
1
The Myth of the Superwoman
391
1
The Myth of the Heroic Quest
392
1
Implications and Recent Trends
392
1
Conclusion
393
1
References
393
2
Adventure in the Workplace
395
8
Todd Miner
Experienced-Based Training and Development as Adventure
395
1
Goals
396
1
Methodology
396
2
The EBTD Industry
398
1
Challenges
398
2
One Final Thought
400
1
Conclusion
400
1
References
400
3
Programs That Include Persons With Diabilities
403
12
Leo McAvoy
Greg Lais
Introduction
403
1
Benefits of Adventure Education for Persons With Diabilities
404
1
Adminstrative Issues
405
1
Staff Training and Factors in Participation
406
1
The Environment
407
1
The Activities
407
1
The Participants
408
1
The Resources (Agency Capacity)
409
1
Guidelines for Program Adaptations
409
1
Adaptive Equipment
410
1
General Guidelines for Integration
411
2
Conclusion
413
1
Sources for Information
413
1
References
414
1
Adventure Travel and Ecotourism
415
16
Graeme Addison
Introduction
415
1
Travel and Work
416
1
Travel as Education
416
1
History
417
1
Defining Adventure Travel: A Typology
418
2
Comfort and Challenge
420
1
Managed Risk
420
2
The Market
422
1
Women in Adventure Travel
423
2
Ecotourism Origins
425
1
Critique
425
1
Ethics and Media
426
1
Less Developed Countries
427
1
Conclusion
428
1
References
428
3
Section 10 Extensions of Adventure Programming
431
48
A Synthesis of Environmental and Adventure Education Concepts: A Professional Responsibility
433
6
Camille J. Bunting
J. T. Townley
Energy
434
1
Cycles
434
1
Diversity, Interrelationships, and Community
435
1
Change and Adaptation
435
1
Professional Significance
436
1
References
436
3
The Place of Deep Ecology and Ecopsychology in Adventure Education
439
6
Robert Henderson
References
444
1
Navigating the Terrain: Helping Care for the Earth
445
10
Randolph Haluza-Delay
The Promise of Wilderness Programs
446
1
Barriers in the Terrain
446
3
Directions for Navigation
449
3
Charting the Inner Landscape---A Compassionate Sense of Place
452
1
Conclusion
453
1
References
454
1
Enhancing Spiritual Experience in Adventure Programs
455
8
Rebecca Fox
Key Terms and Their Definitions
455
1
Spiritual Health and Wellness
456
1
Characteristics of Spirituality in Wilderness and Adventure Education
456
1
Research Into Wilderness Spiritual Experience
457
2
Programming to Enhance Spiritual Opportunities
459
2
Conclusion
461
1
References
461
2
Critical Outdoor Education and Nature as a Friend
463
10
Peter Martin
Introduction
463
1
What Role for Outdoor Education?
463
1
Critical Theory in Outdoor Education
464
2
Nature as a Friend
466
4
Concluding Thoughts
470
1
References
470
3
Future Trends and Issues in Adventure Programming
473
6
Simon Priest
Michael A. Gass
What Is Going on With the World?---Global Trends
473
1
What Does This Mean for Adventure Programming?---Local Trends
474
2
What Does This Mean for Adventure Programming?---Local Issues
476
2
References
478
1
Appendix Resources for Adventure Programming
479
6
Jim Cain
Organizations
479
3
Conferences, Seminars, and Workshops
482
1
Periodicals, Journals, Magazines, and Newsletters
482
1
Sources for Books, References, and Other Information
483
2
The Contributors
485
6
Index
491