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Tables of Contents for Photon U
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Cover Page
1
2
Dedications
3
1
Acknowledgments
4
1
Reproduction Rights
5
1
Table of Contents
6
4
Who Are You? and How to Use This Book
10
6
Lab Safety
16
3
Recommended Materials Suppliers
19
3
The National Content Standards (Grades K-4)
Light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object. Light an be reflected by a mirror, refracted by a lens, or absorbed by the object
The National Content Standards (Grades 5-8)
Light interacts with matter (including refraction) absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that object, emitted by or scattered from it, must enter the eye
The 15 Big Ideas About Light & Corresponding Labs
Visible light is a form of energy that makes up a very small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This light energy can be measured and then described using the terms wave, crest, trough, amplitude, and frequency
Stretching Rainbows
22
3
Talc Beams
25
3
We can detect light using our eyes. The human eye can be described using several different models to demonstrate how the different parts function
Fishbowl Lens
28
2
Camera in a Cup
30
2
Eyeballoon Models
32
6
Sheep Eye Scallopini
38
4
Organelles called cones and rods collect the light images that enter the eye and transmit them to the brain. Their presence in the eye also creates other phenomena we can detect
Peripheral Vision
42
4
Disappearing Frog
46
2
Visual Purple
48
2
Holey Hands
50
2
White light is composed of all the colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. White light can be separated into all of these colors when it passes through a prism or diffraction grating
Prisms, Water Prisms
52
4
Dissecting White Light
56
4
Powdered-Milk Sunsets
60
2
Roy Boy's Wind Sock
62
4
Red, blue, and yellow are the primary colors of the rainbow. These three colors can be mixed in a variety of combinations and produce all of the other colors that we see
Mixing Color Tubes
66
2
Jerry Garcia's Milk Shake
68
2
Rainbow in a Bag
70
3
When light strikes an object, it can be completely reflected or absorbed, diffused, or transmitted. The terms used to describe these phenomena are opaque, translucent, and transparent
The Shadow Knows
73
3
T. P. Binoculars
76
4
Light emitted from different materials can be filtered and observed through a diffraction grating to produce characteristic patterns that are unique to that material. These patterns, or fingerprints, of light can be used to identify different kinds of materials
Chemical Fingerprints
80
3
Homemade 'Scope
83
3
White light can be polarized using a special filter that allows certain wavelengths of light to pass through while blocking others
Light Blocker
86
3
Finding Stress Fractures
89
3
Hidden Mosaics
92
2
Polarized Sugar Water
94
3
A lens is a tool that is used to bend, diffuse, magnify, or concentrate light. It can be made of glass, plastic, water, and other transparent materials
Spoon Illusions
97
3
Portable Lenses
100
3
Cardboard Lenses
103
3
Inverse Square Law
106
2
Kaleidoscope Eyes
108
2
Light can be bent as it passes through certain materials. The amount it is bent is called the index of refraction and varies from material to material
Lincoln's Mystery
110
2
Broken Pencils
112
2
Spearing Washers
114
2
Ghost Crystals
116
2
Glass Rod Repair Shop
118
4
Shoebox Refraction
122
5
Light can be reflected off the surface of a material. The incident angle of light always equals the reflected angle of light
Bouncing Light
127
3
Up Periscope!
130
2
To Infinity & Beyond
132
3
Light can enter and be completely reflected inside some objects. When this phenomenon happens, it is called total internal reflection
The Critical Angle
135
2
Pouring Light
137
3
Waves can bounce off surfaces and interfere with other light waves. This is called wave interference, which can be either constructive or destructive
Bubble Wave Wars
140
2
Rainbow Sandwich
142
3
Optical illusions are light images that are reflected to the eye and trick the brain into thinking it is seeing something it is not
Color-Mixing Tops
145
4
Mouse in the House
149
2
Optical Illusion Gallery
151
7
Light can be absorbed. When this happens, the object that absorbs the light may experience a temperature increase, color change, or possibly a change of state
Solar Snapshots
158
2
UV Beads
160
4
Solar Cells
164
2
A Quanta Puzzle
166
2
Closing Thoughts
168
2
Science Fair Projects
A Step-by-Step Guide: From Idea to Presentation
170
38
The Hypothesis
178
9
Gather Information
187
5
Design Your Experiment
192
5
Conduct the Experiment
197
2
Collect and Display Data
199
4
Present Your Ideas
203
5
Glossary
208
4
Index
212