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Tables of Contents for Beyond the Nuclear Shadow
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
iii
 
Figures
vii
 
Tables
ix
 
Summary
xi
 
Acknowledgments
xxiii
 
Abbreviations
xxv
 
Chapter One BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION FOR IMPROVING NUCLEAR SAFETY
1
12
Concerns About the Current Situation
2
4
Opportunities for Improving Nuclear Safety in an Era of Improving Relations
6
3
Study Approach
9
4
Chapter Two POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR ACCIDENTAL OR UNAUTHORIZED NUCLEAR USE
13
22
Possible Scenarios
13
6
Factors Contributing to Possible Nuclear Use
19
14
Conclusions
33
2
Chapter Three CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING NUCLEAR SAFETY OPTIONS
35
4
Chapter Four OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING NUCLEAR SAFETY
39
94
Finding Solutions to the Potential Causes of Nuclear Use
39
5
Option 1: Provide Assistance for Improving Russia's Early-Warning Radars or Satellites
44
9
Option 2: Establish a Joint, Redundant Early-Warning System by Placing Sensors Outside U.S. and Russian Missile Silos
53
9
Option 3: Immediately Stand Down All Nuclear Forces to Be Eliminated
62
5
Option 4: Pull U.S. Strategic Ballistic Missile Submarines Away from Russia
67
10
Option 5: Keep U.S. Attack Submarines Away from Russia
77
5
Option 6: Remove W-88 Warheads from Trident Missiles
82
5
Option 7: Reduce Day-to-Day Launch Readiness of 150 ICBMs in Silos
87
12
Option 8: Reduce Day-to-Day Launch Readiness of All Nuclear Forces
99
16
Option 9: Install Destruct-After-Launch (DAL) Mechanisms on Ballistic Missiles
115
9
Option 10: Deploy Limited U.S. Missile Defenses
124
9
Chapter Five RECOMMENDATION: A PHASED APPROACH FOR IMPROVING NUCLEAR SAFETYAND U.S.-RUSSIAN RELATIONS
133
10
Immediate Steps
135
2
Near-Term Steps
137
1
Medium-Term Steps
138
1
Possible Intermediate- to Long-Term Steps
139
1
Possible End States
140
1
Conclusion
141
2
Appendix: Illustrative Presidential Directive for Improving Nuclear Safety
143
6
Bibliography
149