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Tables of Contents for Military Airframe Costs
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
iii
Figures
ix
Tables
xi
Summary
xiii
Acknowledgments
xvii
Acronyms
xxi
Introduction
1
6
Background and Purpose
1
1
Relation to Previous Work
2
3
How This Report Is Organized
5
2
Material Characteristics
7
34
Background and Historical Perspective
7
8
What Are Composite Materials, and Why Are They Used in Producing Aircraft?
7
1
Why Aren't All Metal Parts Replaced by Composites?
8
7
Material Properties Defined
15
4
Specific Material Properties
19
1
Composite Materials
19
10
Reinforcing Material
20
3
Matrix Materials
23
1
Thermoset Matrices
23
1
Thermoplastic materials
24
2
Combining Reinforcement and the Matrix: The Composite Material
26
3
Advantages of Composite Materials in Airframe Applications
29
5
Weight Versus Strength and Stiffness
29
1
Directionality of Strength and Stiffness
30
1
Composite Part Design Issues
31
1
Part Complexity and Design Automation
31
2
Composite Unitization
33
1
Other Considerations in Using Composites
34
4
Knowledge Base for Composite Materials
34
1
Failure Modes
35
1
Tooling
36
1
Nondestructive Inspection and Test (NDI/T)
37
1
Metals
38
3
Aluminum
38
1
Titanium
39
1
Steel
39
2
Manufacturing Techniques
41
14
Composite Manufacturing Techniques
41
10
Hand Layup
42
2
Automation in Hand Layup
44
1
Automated Fiber Placement
44
3
Resin Transfer Molding
47
2
Other Current Composite Manufacturing Techniques
49
1
Possible Future Manufacturing Techniques
50
1
Metal Manufacturing Techniques
51
4
Conventional Processes
51
2
High-Speed Machining of Aluminum
53
1
High-Performance Machining of Titanium
53
1
Hot Isostatic Press Investment Casting of Titanium
53
1
Laser Forming of Titanium
54
1
Airframe Cost Information
55
28
Revisiting the Resetar, Rogers, and Hess Study
55
3
Current Study Results: Aggregate Airframe Data by Functional Labor Category
58
7
Nonrecurring Engineering
59
1
Nonrecurring Tooling
60
1
Recurring Engineering
61
1
Recurring Tooling
62
1
Recurring Manufacturing
63
1
Recurring Quality Assurance
64
1
Comparison to 1980s Survey Results
65
4
Current Study Results: Part-Level Data by Materials, Manufacturing Process, and Part Geometric Complexity
69
7
Part Geometric Complexity
70
1
Methodology
71
2
Results
73
3
Cost Improvement Slopes
76
1
Weight-Sizing Slopes
77
1
Material Costs
78
3
Raw Material Costs
78
3
Buy-to-Fly
81
2
Airframe Cost-Estimating Methodology
83
14
Application of Survey Cost Ratios to CERs
83
3
Statistical Analysis of the Recurring Costs of Recent Fighters
86
11
The MACDAR Database
86
1
``Stylized Facts''
87
2
Statistical Results
89
8
Applying the Results
97
36
Applying the Survey Cost Ratios
97
2
Applying the Part-Level Data
99
1
Comparison of Airframes Manufactured Using Traditional Techniques with Those Using Advanced Techniques
100
4
Cost Ratios in the 2000s: Optimistic and Pessimistic Projections
104
2
Cost-Estimating Considerations for Airframe Stealth Requirements
106
1
Lean Manufacturing and Acquisition Reform
107
2
Conclusion
109
2
Appendix
A. Stress-Strain Diagram
111
2
B. Aircraft Weight Definitions
113
2
C. Aircraft Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Levels (From Military Specification 881)
115
12
D. Airframe Development Cost-Estimating Relationships
127
2
E. Subjects of the Three Rand Studies on Industry Initiatives Designed to Reduce the Cost of Producing Military Aircraft
129
4
Bibliography
133
6
Recommended Readings
139
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