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Tables of Contents for Military Airframe Production Costs
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
iii
Figures
ix
Tables
xi
Summary
xiii
Acknowledgments
xix
Abbreviations
xxi
Introduction
1
4
PART I: LEAN MANUFATURING AND METHODS OF STUDY
5
24
The Lean Manufacturing System
7
16
The Search for Productivity Improvements and the Genesis of Lean Manufacturing
7
5
Overview of the Lean Manufacturing System
12
4
Complexities and Challenges
16
7
Lean Implementation in the Military Aircraft Industry
19
4
Data and Methods
23
6
Reporting Results: Accounting for Savings from Lean Processes in Defense Manufacturing
26
3
The CCDR System
27
2
PART II: INCORPORATING LEAN INTO COST ESTIMATES USING CCDR CATEGORIES
29
90
Engineering
31
20
Introduction
31
1
Design Engineering
32
6
IPPD and IPTs
33
3
Cost Effects of IPTs
36
2
Computer-Aided Design Technology
38
5
Other Lean Enablers--Design Philosophies That Reduce Manufacturing Costs
43
5
Unitization/Part Count Reduction
44
3
Part Standardization
47
1
Summary Results on Implementation of Lean Design and Development
48
3
Tooling
51
4
Introduction
51
1
Tooling in the CCDR
51
1
Advances in Tooling
52
1
Self-Locating Parts
52
1
Flexible Tooling
52
1
Other New Tooling Technologies
53
1
Summary Discussion of Lean Tooling
53
2
Manufacturing
55
26
Introduction
55
1
Lean Manufacturing in the Factory
56
2
Pull Production
58
1
Cellular Production and Single-Piece Manufacturing Flow
59
8
Takt Time
67
1
Visual Control
68
5
Housekeeping
68
1
Location of Tools/Shadowboxes
69
1
Shadowbox Kitting
69
4
Manufacturing Best Practices That Enable Lean Production
73
1
Summary Results on Implementation of Lean Manufacturing
74
7
Specific Examples of Savings From Lean Implementation
75
1
Lean Transformation at Brownfield Plants
76
1
Summary of Typical Savings
77
4
Quality Control
81
6
Introduction
81
1
First-Time Quality: A Keystone of Lean
81
3
Reduction in Cost of Quality Through Lean Practices
84
3
Materials and Purchased Parts (Manufacturing)
87
16
Introduction
87
1
Lean PSM---A New Procurement Strategy
87
5
Specific Practices of Lean PSM
92
7
Supplier Qualification and Certification
92
1
Long-Term Relationships
92
1
Communications with Suppliers
93
1
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) with Suppliers
94
1
Continuous Improvement Kaizen Events at Suppliers
94
1
Target Costing
95
1
Just-in-Time (JIT) Delivery
96
2
Supplier Management of Inventory at Customer
98
1
Supplier Kitting
99
1
Summary Results on Implementation of Lean PSM
99
4
Overhead, General, and Administrative Costs
103
8
Introduction
103
1
The Overhead and G&A CCDR Categories
103
1
Administrative Costs
104
1
Materials Overhead
105
1
Engineering and Manufacturing Overhead
105
1
Lean Inventory Management
106
1
Results on Implementation of Lean Inventory Management
107
2
Summary Results of Savings from Reduced Inventory
109
1
Forward Pricing Rate Agreements (FPRAs)
109
2
Making it Work---Lean Human Resources Management
111
8
Introduction
111
1
Lean HRM
111
3
The Debate on Lean HRM---Empowerment or Exploitation?
114
2
Summary Results on Implementation of Lean HRM
116
3
PART III: ISSUES FOR COST ANALYSTS
119
32
Integration and Challenges for Cost Analysis
121
12
Integration Across Areas
121
1
Learning Curves, Standard Hours, and Material Improvement Curves
122
11
Discussion and Conclusions
133
18
Transition to Lean Manufacturing
133
1
Further Discussion
134
Appendix
A. Subjects of Three Rand Studies on Industry Initiatives Designed to Reduce the Cost of Producing Military Aircraft
133
10
B. Questions Concerning Lean Implementation Sent to Military Aircraft manufacturers by Rand
143
4
C. CCDR Definitions
147
4
Bibliography
151
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