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Tables of Contents for New Forces at Work In Refining
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
iii
 
Tables
ix
 
Executive Summary: A Thematic Road Map
xi
 
Acknowledgments
xxi
 
Acronyms and Abbreviations
xxiii
 
Introduction Toward A New View of Critical Technologies
1
1
The Issue of Critical Technology
1
7
Technology and the Public Purpose: The National Critical Technologies Reports
2
4
Shortcomings of the NCT Assessment Process
6
1
Critical Technologies: Industry's View
7
1
The Form and Conduct of this Study
8
3
How the Study Was Conducted
8
2
What the Study Is-and What It Is Not
10
1
Organization of the Report
11
4
PART I---WHAT ARE THE CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES?
15
64
Critical Technologies of Today
17
26
Technology with Cross-Sectoral Ubiquity
18
19
Software
19
4
Microelectronics and Telecommunications
23
4
Advanced Manufacturing Technology
27
3
Materials
30
4
Sensors and Imaging Technologies
34
3
Technologies at the Interstices
37
6
Separation Technology
38
1
Overhaul-and-Repair Technology
39
1
Complex-Product System-Coordination Technology
40
3
Over The Horizon: Technologies in Evolution and Revolution
43
22
Why Look Ahead?
43
12
Electronics and Information Technology
44
1
Software
45
3
Computer Hardware
48
3
Lithography: Manufacturing Computer and Communications Equipment
51
2
Communications
53
2
Materials
55
3
Making Old Materials in New Ways
55
2
Environmentally Friendly Materials
57
1
Biotechnology
58
3
Biotechnology and Medicine
58
1
Biotechnology and Agriculture
59
1
Biotechnology and the Environment
60
1
Biotechnology and Communications
60
1
Energy
61
2
Applying Technologies to Hard Problems; Creating Opportunities
63
2
Technologies of National Importance
65
14
National Security
66
4
Technologies Critical to National Defense
67
2
Ensuring Access to Critical Technologies
69
1
Technologies Associated With Critical Resources
70
1
Health and the Environment
70
3
Health-Related Technologies
71
1
Environmental Technologies
72
1
Transportation
73
1
Economic Growth
74
5
Technology Leadership Conferring Economic Leadership
76
1
Jobs, Jobs, Jobs
77
1
Potential Technologies Identified
77
2
PART II---CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE LARGER CONTEXT
79
44
The Sources of Critical Technology
81
20
The Location of New-Technology Generation and Development
82
11
Industry's Role
86
4
The University's Role
90
2
Government's Role
92
1
Domestic Content or Origin for Critical Technologies
93
2
The Value of Proximity
95
6
Laboratory-Based Proximity
98
1
Regional Proximity
99
2
Government's Role in Fostering Critical Technologies
101
22
Leadership: Mobilizing the Public and Industry
102
3
Ensuring Public Support for the R&D Enterprise
102
1
Mobilizing Industry
103
2
Laying the Foundations for Technological Breakthroughs
105
7
Investing in S&T Infrastructure
106
1
Investing in Education and Training
106
3
Funding Research
109
3
Preparing the Environment for Technology Development
112
5
Protecting Intellectual Property
113
1
Balancing Regulation and Deregulation
114
1
Minimizing the Effect of Tort Laws
115
1
Reducing the Costs of Capital
116
1
Placing Respondents' Views in Context
117
6
Points of Consensus and Dispute
117
1
Using the Lens of Economic Theory to Sharpen the Image
118
2
Comparing This Image with Current Funding Patterns
120
3
PART III---NEW PATHS FOR ASSESSING CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES
123
26
Recasting Discussion of Critical Technologies
125
24
How Business Views Technology-and Its Criticality
125
3
``Critical Technology'': Definitions Reconsidered
127
1
Industry, Critical Technologies, and the NCT Review Process
128
5
The Idea: Goals and Objectives
129
2
The Mechanics: The Conduct of the Discussion Between and Within Industry and Government
131
2
A Vision for Critical-Technologies Assessment in the United States
133
4
Appendix
A. The Interviews
137
6
B. List And Frequency Check of Critical Technologies
143
6
Bibliography
149