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Tables of Contents for Reward and Dependence
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Introduction
11
6
I. Theoretical part
Conceptions of reward: Definition and relation to associated terms
17
20
Hedonism and Pleasure
18
5
Hedonism
18
3
Pleasure
21
2
Instincts and drives
23
3
Arousal
26
4
Reward and reinforcement
30
7
Reinforcement
31
4
Reward
35
2
Neural substrates of reward
37
26
Evidence for an involvement of dopamine
37
11
Neurophysiological studies
38
1
Intracranial self-stimulation studies
38
6
Recording the activity of single neurons
44
1
Pharmacological Studies
45
1
Neuroimaging Studies
46
2
Role of dopamine in reward processing
48
6
Mediation of hedonic value
48
1
Mediation of reward learning
49
3
Attribution of incentive salience
52
2
Beyond the dopamine system
54
9
Implication of other neurotransmitters
54
3
The extended amygdala
57
6
Motivational role of reward: Integrating psychology and neurobiology
63
24
Historical and theoretical overview of motivation
63
6
Definitions of motivation
64
1
Historical overview of motivation theories
64
5
A general model of motivation
69
11
External condition
72
1
Internal state
72
3
Goal commitment
75
3
Action and outcome
78
2
The function of reward
80
3
Psychobiological considerations
83
4
Reward and addiction: Reward as an explanation concept for addiction
87
24
Addiction and addictive drugs
88
6
Definition of addiction
88
1
Substances of abuse
89
5
Motives and risk factors influencing dependence
94
6
Motives for drug-seeking behavior
95
2
Risk factors for the development of dependent behavior
97
3
Reward as an explanatory concept for addiction
100
11
Addiction as an hedonic homeostatic dysregulation
101
2
Addiction as a behavior control disorder
103
8
II. Empirical part
Aims and hypothesis
111
4
Hypothesis
112
3
PET-study
113
1
Questionnaire study
113
1
Hypothesis related to drug use
113
1
Hypothesis related to sensation seeking
114
1
Hypothesis related to hedonism
114
1
Hypothesis related to reward
114
1
Method
115
26
PET-Experiment
115
7
Subjects
115
1
PET-scanning
116
2
Cognitive task
118
3
Psychological and psychophysiological measures
121
1
Mood rating
121
1
Monetary value
121
1
Evaluation of the experiment
121
1
Psychophysiological measurement
122
1
Questionnaire study
122
19
Subjects
122
1
Demographic information
123
3
Sensation seeking questionnaire
126
1
List of pleasant activities
127
1
Development
127
2
German adaptation
129
1
Reward questionnaire
130
1
Development
130
4
Psychometric characteristics
134
7
Results
141
44
PET-Experiment
141
15
Cognitive performance
141
1
Psychological and psychophysiological measures
142
1
Mood rating
142
1
Monetary value
143
1
Evaluation of the experiment
144
2
Psychophysiological measurement
146
1
PET-scanning
147
9
Questionnaire study
156
29
Hypothesis related to drug use
157
5
Hypothesis related to sensation seeking
162
8
Hypothesis related to hedonism
170
3
Hypothesis related to reward
173
12
Discussion
185
22
PET study
185
7
Activation in healthy controls
186
3
Activation in the dependent subjects
189
3
Questionnaire study
192
8
Results related to drug use
192
1
Results related to sensation seeking
193
3
Results related to hedonism
196
1
Results related to reward
197
3
Conclusions
200
7
Acknowledgements
207
2
References
209
22
Appendix 1
231
20
Appendix 2
251