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Tables of Contents for Emc for Systems and Installations
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
xi
Introduction: the EMC needs of systems
1
12
The definition of electromagnetic compatibility
2
6
A description of EMC phenomena
3
5
The need for EMC
8
5
Control of emissions
8
1
Control of immunity
9
2
Safety aspects
11
2
The EMC Directive's requirements for systems and installations
13
30
Introduction to the EMC Directive
13
7
Scope and purpose
14
3
Other CE marking directives
17
1
The meaning of the CE Mark
18
2
Applicability to systems and installations
20
9
The 1997 guidelines
20
6
Definitions of systems and installations
26
1
The ``responsible person''
27
1
The ``instructions for use''
28
1
Routes to compliance
29
9
Self certification to standards
29
2
Using the Technical Construction File
31
3
Does ``CE + CE = CE?''
34
3
The ``Procedural Approach'' to compliance
37
1
Enforcement and the future of the EMC Directive
38
5
The UK situation
38
1
Other countries
38
2
The SLIM initiative
40
3
Management of systems EMC
43
24
The EMC control plan
43
6
The EMC control board
43
1
Identifying EMC issues
44
3
Identifying and sourcing critical parts
47
1
Control of assembly and installation
48
1
The EMC test plan
49
3
Defining the configuration to be tested
49
1
Defining the tests to be done
50
1
Testing system modules
50
1
Testing the whole system
50
2
Documentation
52
1
Documentation for in-house use
52
1
Documentation for a TCF
52
1
Purchasing
52
10
Determining the EMC specifications for an incorporated item
53
3
Checking suppliers' evidence of EMC performance
56
6
Maintenance, upgrades and enhancements
62
2
Maintenance
62
1
The relevance of upgrades or enhancements
63
1
Training
64
3
Training and awareness check list
64
3
Interference sources, victims and coupling
67
34
Phenomena in the electromagnetic environment
67
11
Examples of radiated field threats
76
1
Continuous radiated threats from radio transmitters
77
1
Coupling
78
14
Direct coupling
78
3
Near field (inductive and capacitive) coupling
81
3
Radiated coupling
84
2
The modes of coupling
86
3
Protection measures
89
3
Mains harmonics
92
4
Their causes and problems
92
3
Harmonic solutions
95
1
EMC versus safety
96
5
Filter problems
97
2
Screened enclosures
99
2
Earthing and bonding
101
32
The concept and practice of earth
101
11
The purposes of the earth connection
101
2
Definitions of the EMC earth
103
3
Earthing techniques
106
6
The impedance of the earth connection
112
11
Impedance of wires
112
3
Effective bonding of joints
115
8
Creating the meshed facility earth
123
10
Constructing SRPPs and bonding mats for system blocks
123
3
Improving the earth-bonding of older buildings
126
5
Maintaining earth-bonding networks
131
1
Non-IT installations
131
2
Cabinets, cubicles and chambers
133
22
The purpose of a metallic enclosure
133
4
Transfer impedance of the earth reference
133
1
Layout and placement within the enclosure
134
3
Shielding theory
137
7
Shielding effectiveness
137
4
The effect of apertures, seams and penetrations
141
3
Shielding techniques
144
7
Bonding structural components
144
1
Shielding hardware
145
6
Installation and maintenance of screened enclosures
151
1
Architectural shielding
151
4
Apertures
152
3
Cabling
155
38
Coupling to, from and within cables
155
9
Differential mode
155
4
Common mode
159
4
Crosstalk
163
1
Cable screening techniques
164
11
Options for cable screening
164
2
Cable transfer impedance
166
2
Terminating the screen
168
3
Which end to earth?
171
4
Unscreened cables
175
4
Twisted pair
176
2
Ribbon cable
178
1
Installing cable systems
179
14
Cable classification
179
5
Segregation and routing
184
4
Parallel Earth Conductor (PEC) techniques
188
5
Filtering
193
18
Attenuating noise at the interfaces
193
7
The low pass filter
193
1
Differential versus common mode in filters
194
1
Source and load impedances
195
2
Layout and installation
197
3
Mains filters
200
5
The operation of standard mains filters
201
1
Extending the performance of standard filters
202
3
Filtering other lines
205
6
Filtered connector adaptors
206
1
Using ferrites
207
4
Lightning and surge protection
211
24
The EMC problems of lightning
211
3
How lightning phenomena can affect electronic apparatus
211
2
Overview of design of a lightning protection system (LPS)
213
1
Basic LPS design for safety and structural protection
214
6
Risk assessment
214
1
Construction of an LPS
215
4
Bonding external cables and metallic services to earth
219
1
Additional LPS measures to protect electronic apparatus
220
15
Enhancing the LPS structure
221
1
Protection of exposed equipment
221
1
Enhanced earthing and bonding
222
3
Cable routing and screen bonding
225
1
Use of isolation techniques and fibre-optics
226
1
Zoning and surge protection
226
7
Protecting from non-lightning surges
233
2
In situ testing
235
40
Emissions
235
22
CISPR instrumentation and transducers
235
11
Conducted test methods
246
3
Radiated test methods
249
4
Practical aspects of in-situ emissions tests
253
4
Immunity
257
18
Practical aspects of immunity tests
257
1
Electrostatic discharge
257
4
Electrical fast transient bursts
261
3
Surges
264
2
Radiated and conducted RF
266
9
Appendix A Systems EMC procedures checklist
275
4
Company Procedures
275
1
Designers
275
1
Assemblers
276
1
User and Installation Manuals
276
1
Installation, commissioning, service
277
2
Appendix B Determining performance criteria
279
6
Appendix C Some published case studies
285
8
Segaworld
285
1
Air Traffic Services
286
3
VDU image problems in a steel rolling mill
289
1
Large explosion at the Texaco Refinery, Milford Haven, July 1994
290
1
Wide area interference created by large inverter drives
291
1
Release of chlorine gas in semiconductor processing plant
292
1
Traction current interference to safety circuits
292
1
Appendix D The EU and EEA countries
293
2
The European Union
293
1
The European Economic Area
293
2
Glossary
295
2
Bibliography
297
10
Index
307
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