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Tables of Contents for Theatre
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
1 DISCOVERING THEATRE
2
22
The Immediate Art
3
1
Theatre's Immediacy
4
1
Theatre's Aliveness
5
3
Photo Essay: Types of Contemporary Theatres
8
5
Theatre's Doubleness
13
1
Box: Theatre and Life Theatre's Fictions
14
2
Theatre's Spaces
16
1
Color Photo Essay: Shakespeare's Plays into Film
Theatre's Audiences
17
3
Box: Waiting for Godot
20
1
Summary
21
1
Questions for Study
22
2
2 THE SEEING PLACE
24
36
Ritual and Theatre
25
3
First Performance Spaces
25
3
The Greek Theatre
28
2
Orchestra and Skene
28
1
The Chorus as Spectator
28
2
Box: Aeschylus and the Athenian Festivals
30
2
Medieval Theatre
32
1
Box: Tropes
32
3
Types of Medieval Staging
33
2
The Elizabethan Theatre
35
2
Shakespeare's Globe
36
1
Box: William Shakespeare
37
1
Photo Essay: Elizabethan Theatres and Reconstructions
38
3
Theatrical Influences
40
1
The Proscenium Theatre
41
3
The Picture-Frame Stage
42
2
The Thrust, or Open, Stage
44
1
Non-Western Theatre
44
5
China's Beijing Opera
45
4
Box: Mei-Lan Fang
49
1
Photo Essay: Eastern Influences on Western Theatre
50
6
Japanese Noh Theatre
53
1
Japanese Kabuki Theatre
54
2
Box: Chikamatsu Monzaemon
56
1
Summary
57
1
Questions for Study
58
2
3 ALTERNATIVE THEATRICAL SPACES
60
20
Forerunners of Alternative Approaches
62
1
The Polish Laboratory Theatre
62
1
Jerzy Grotowski's Poor Theatre
62
1
Box: Jerzy Grotowski
63
4
Akropolis
65
2
Theatre du Soleil
67
1
Ariane Mnouchkine's Environmental Space
67
1
Box: Ariane Mnouchkine
68
2
Photo Essay: Environmental Theatre--A Perspective
70
4
Box: Peter Schumann
74
1
The Bread and Puppet Theatre
74
4
Peter Schumann's Open-Air Performances
74
2
The Stations of the Cross
76
2
Summary
78
1
Questions for Study
78
2
4 THE IMAGE MAKERS: THE PLAYWRIGHT
80
20
The Playwright
81
1
A Personal Vision
81
1
Box: Sam Shepard
82
2
The Playwright's Beginnings
84
1
The Playwright's Role
84
2
Box: David Mamet
86
1
The Playwright's Tools
86
2
Box: August Wilson
88
3
The Playwright and the Industry
91
1
Box: Tennessee Williams
92
2
Photo Essay: Women Playwrights: Emerging Voices and Perspectives
94
5
Summary
99
1
Questions for Study
99
1
5 DRAMA'S PERSPECTIVES AND FORMS
100
34
Tragedy
101
1
Box: Oedipus the King
102
1
The Tragic Vision
102
1
Tragic Realization
103
1
Aristotle on Tragedy
103
1
Comedy
103
1
Box: Moliere
104
3
The Comic Vision
106
1
Tragicomedy
107
1
Box: The Three Sisters
108
2
Modern Tragicomedy
108
2
Box: Samuel Beckett
110
1
Melodrama
110
2
The Mixed Form
111
1
Box: The Little Foxes
112
2
Farce
114
1
Box: Noises Off
115
1
Adaptations
116
2
Photo Essay: The Grapes of Wrath
118
4
Box: The Grapes of Wrath
122
2
The Grapes of Wrath
122
2
Box: Bertolt Brecht
124
1
Epic Theatre
125
4
The Epic Play
126
1
Dramatic Versus Epic Theatre
126
1
Epic Acting as Eyewitness Account
127
1
The Alienation Effect
128
1
Absurdist Theatre
129
1
The Absurd
129
1
Box: Eugene Ionesco
130
1
Box: The Bald Soprano
131
1
Summary
132
1
Questions for Study
133
1
6 STRUCTURES OF SEEING
134
32
Drama as Imitation
135
1
Drama's Elements
136
2
Box: Henrik Ibsen
138
2
Play Structures
140
3
Climactic Structure
141
1
Episodic Structure
142
1
Box: The Caucasian Chalk Circle
143
3
Situational Structure
145
1
Box: The Bald Soprano
146
2
Recent Structures
148
3
Solo Text
148
2
Monodrama
150
1
Box: Spalding Gray
151
1
Box: Rockaby
152
6
Theatre of Images
157
1
Box: Robert Wilson
158
2
Photo Essay: Theatre for a High-Tech World
160
4
Summary
164
1
Questions for Study
165
1
7 DRAMA'S CONVENTIONS
166
26
Writing Conventions
167
2
Stage Directions
167
2
Box: A Streetcar Named Desire
169
3
Exposition
171
1
Box: The Trojan Women
172
4
Point of Attack
175
1
Complication, Crisis, Climax
175
1
Box: Macbeth
176
3
Resolution
176
3
Box: Hamlet
179
3
Simultaneous Plots
181
1
Photo Essay: The Play within the Play: Traditional and Modern
182
3
Conventions of Time
185
1
Dramatic versus Actual Time
185
1
Conventions of Metaphor
185
1
The Play within the Play
185
1
Box: Luigi Pirandello
186
1
Box: Six Characters in Search of an Author
187
3
Summary
190
1
Questions for Study
190
2
8 THEATRE LANGUAGE
192
28
Verbal and Nonverbal Language
195
1
Types of Theatre Language
196
1
Box: The Cherry Orchard
197
2
Shakespeare's Verse
198
1
Box: Soliloquy from Hamlet
199
1
Box: Ibsen's Words and Gestures
200
2
Ibsen's Signs and Symbols
200
2
Box: Chekhov's Sound Effects
202
2
Chekhov's Sounds and Silences
202
1
Brecht's Gestic Language
203
1
Box: Anton Chekhov
204
2
Contemporary Trends
206
2
Peter Weiss' Visceral Language
207
1
Box: Marat/Sade
208
2
Sam Shepard's Magical Realism
209
1
Box: Shepard's Language of Magical Realism
210
4
David Mamet's Wordsmiths
213
1
Box: David Mamet's Wordsmiths
214
3
Summary
217
1
Questions for Study
218
2
9 THE IMAGE MAKERS: THE ACTOR
220
26
Acting--The Astonishing Art
221
1
The Actor's Reality
222
5
External Technique
223
3
Internal Belief
226
1
The Actor's Tools
227
1
The Actor's Training
227
3
Preparing the Role
228
2
Box: Lee Strasberg
230
4
Recalling Emotions
231
2
Physical and Vocal Training
233
1
Box: Uta Hagen
234
3
Photo Essay: Great Moments of Acting
237
6
Rehearsals and Performance
243
1
Summary
243
1
Questions for Study
244
2
10 THE IMAGE MAKERS: THE DIRECTOR
246
24
Forerunners
247
1
Box: Duke of Saxe-Meiningen--George II
248
1
The Director as Artist
248
2
Box: Andre Antoine
250
1
Early Responsibilities: Audition, Casting, Assistants
250
1
Box: Constantin Stanislavski
251
1
Box: Alan Schneider
252
2
Directing Styles
254
1
Box: Stage Vocabulary
255
3
Color Photo Essay: The Director as Creator The Director's Vision
258
1
Box: Elia Kazan
259
5
Box: Peter Brook
264
2
Box: JoAnne Akalaitis
266
2
Summary
268
1
Questions for Study
268
2
11 THE IMAGE MAKERS: THE DESIGNERS
270
32
The Scene Designer
271
3
Background
271
2
The Designer's Training
273
1
Designing for the Theatre
273
1
Box: Appia and Craig
274
2
Box: Ming Cho Lee
276
2
Photo Essay: Modern Stage Designs
278
6
The Costume Designer
284
3
The Costume
284
1
The Design Conference
285
2
Box: Patricia Zipprodt
287
1
Box: Theoni V. Aldredge
288
1
Costume Construction
288
1
Color Photo Essay: Broadway Designers at Work
289
1
Dress Rehearsal and Wardrobe Personnel
289
1
Box: Jennifer Tipton
290
4
Makeup
290
1
Masks
291
3
The Lighting Designer
294
4
The Art of Light
295
1
Plotting and Cueing
296
2
The Sound Designer
298
2
Summary
300
1
Questions for Study
300
2
12 THE IMAGE MAKERS: THE PRODUCERS
302
18
The Broadway Producer
303
2
Color Photo Essay: Broadway's "Hottest" Property: The Musical
305
1
The Broadway Option
305
1
Box: Cohen on Producing
306
1
The Associations and Craft Unions
306
1
Box: Cameron Mackintosh
307
1
Casting
307
1
Box: Contracts
308
2
The Agent
309
1
Preview or Out-of-Town Tryout
309
1
Box: Audrey Wood
310
1
The Broadway Opening and After
310
1
The National Touring Company
311
1
Producing Off Broadway
311
1
Producing in the Nonprofit Regional Theatre
312
4
Box: Zelda Fichandler
316
2
Summary
318
1
Questions for Study
319
1
13 REIMAGING CULTURES: THEATRICAL DIVERSITY
320
26
Transculturalism
323
2
Peter Brook and The Mahabharata (1985)
323
2
Box: The Mahabharata
325
5
Julie Taymor and Juan Darien (1988)
326
3
Ariane Mnouchkine and Les Atrides (1992)
329
1
Box: Julie Taymor
330
4
Photo Essay: Reimaging Cultures
334
4
Cultural Diversity and Performance Art
338
1
The Solo Performance
339
3
Anna Deavere Smith and Fires in the Mirror: Crown Heights, Brooklyn and Other Identities (1991)
339
3
Summary
342
2
Questions for Study
344
2
14 VIEWPOINTS
346
25
Seeing Theatre
348
3
Audiences as Critics
348
3
The Professional Critic
351
4
The Critic's Role
351
2
The Critic's Questions
353
1
Performance Notes
354
1
Box: George Jean Nathan, Harold Clurman
355
1
Box: Claudia Cassidy, Vincent Canby
356
1
Photo Essay: Critics at Work
357
3
Writing the Theatre Review
360
3
Two Critics at Work
363
5
Brooks Atkinson on A Streetcar Named Desire
363
3
Kenneth Tynan on Look Back in Anger
366
2
Summary
368
1
Questions for Study
368
3
Glossary
371
10
Appendix A: Suggested Readings
381
8
Appendix B: Related Films and Videocassettes
389
4
Appendix C: Notes
393
6
Acknowledgments
399
2
Index
401