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Tables of Contents for Learning and Memory
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Perspectives on Learning and Memory
1
38
Learning and Adaptation
1
2
Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches
3
1
Definitions of Learning and Memory
4
2
History of Research on Learning and Memory
6
24
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850--1909)
7
2
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849--1936)
9
3
Edward L. Thorndike (1874--1949)
12
4
Clark L. Hull (1884--1952)
16
1
Edward C. Tolman (1886--1959)
17
3
B. F. Skinner (1904--1990)
20
4
The General Problem Solver (Newell & Simon, 1961)
24
3
A Model of Memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)
27
3
Neural Basis of Learning and Memory
30
7
The Nervous System
30
3
The Neuron
33
2
Neural Explanations and Information-Processing Explanations
35
2
Outline of the Book
37
1
Further Readings
38
1
Classical Conditioning
39
39
Overview
39
1
The Phenomena of Classical Conditioning: Eye Blink in Humans
39
4
Sensitization and Habituation
41
1
Conditioning and Awareness
42
1
What This Chapter Covers
43
1
Neural Basis of Classical Conditioning
44
5
Simple Learning in Aplysia (Sea Slug)
45
2
Classical Conditioning of the Eye Blink in the Rabbit
47
2
S--S or S--R Associations?
49
4
Response--Prevention Paradigm
50
1
US Devaluation Paradigm
51
1
Sensory Preconditioning Paradigm
51
1
Second-Order Conditioning Paradigm
52
1
Conclusions
53
1
What Is the Conditioned Stimulus?
53
1
What Is the Conditioned Response?
54
4
Association: The Role of Contingency
58
5
Rescorla's Experiment
58
2
Conditioned Inhibition
60
1
Associative Bias
61
1
Conclusions about the Nature of the Association
62
1
Conditioning to Stimulus Combinations
63
2
Blocking
63
1
Configural Cues
64
1
Conclusions
65
1
The Rescorla--Wagner Theory
65
10
Application to Compound Stimuli
66
2
Application to Blocking and Conditioned Inhibition
68
2
Problems with the Rescorla--Wagner Theory
70
2
Neural Realization: The Delta Rule
72
3
Final Reflections on Classical Conditioning
75
2
Further Readings
77
1
Instrumental Conditioning
78
40
Overview
78
1
Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Compared
79
1
What This Chapter Covers
80
1
What Is Associated?
80
3
Associations Between Responses and Neural Outcomes
81
1
Secondary Reinforcement
82
1
What Is the Conditioned Stimulus?
83
11
Generalization
84
2
Discrimination
86
2
Spence's Theory of Discrimination Learning
88
1
Relational Responding: Transposition
89
1
Dimensional or Attentional Learning
90
3
Configural Cues and Learning of Categories
93
1
What Is the Conditioned Response?
94
5
Maze Learning
95
2
Response Shaping and Instinctive Drift
97
1
Autoshaping
98
1
Association: Contiguity or Contingency?
99
7
Superstitious Learning
101
1
Partial Reinforcement
102
1
Learned Helplessness
103
1
Associative Bias
104
2
Instrumental Conditioning and Causal Inference
106
3
Application of the Rescorla-Wagner Theory
107
1
Interpretations
108
1
The Hippocampus and Conditioning
109
7
The Nature of Hippocampal Learning
112
2
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
114
1
Long-Term Potentiation and Hippocampal Learning
115
1
Final Reflections on Conditioning
116
1
Further Readings
117
1
Reinforcement and Learning
118
34
Some Basic Concepts and Principles
118
7
Rational Behavior
119
2
Effects of Reinforcement on Learning
121
2
Reward and Punishment
123
2
Aversive Control of Behavior
125
5
Punishment
125
4
Negative Reinforcement
129
1
The Nature of Reinforcement
130
7
Drive-Reduction Theory
130
2
Premack's Theory of Reinforcement
132
2
Neural Basis for Reinforcement
134
1
Equilibrium Theory and Bliss Points
134
3
Studies of Choice Behavior
137
11
Schedules of Reinforcement
137
2
Variable-Interval Schedules and the Matching Law
139
1
Momentary Maximizing
140
2
Probability Matching
142
1
Optimal Foraging Theory
143
2
Effects of Delay of Reinforcement
145
3
Mechanisms of Choice
148
2
Human Decision Making
148
2
Final Reflections
150
1
Further Readings
151
1
Transient Memories
152
33
Conditioning Research Versus Memory Research
152
3
Animal Research Versus Human Research
153
2
Sensory Memory
155
5
Visual Sensory Memory
155
2
Auditory Sensory Memory
157
2
Conclusions about Sensory Memory
159
1
The Raise and Fall of the Theory of Short-Term Memory
160
6
Effects of Rehearsal
160
2
Coding Differences
162
2
The Retention Function
164
2
Conclusions about Short-Term Memory
166
1
Rehearsal Systems
166
12
The Phonological Loop
167
2
The Visuo-spatial Sketch Pad
169
2
Working Memory and the Central Executive
171
1
The Sternberg Paradigm
172
3
Rehearsal Processes in Lower Organisms
175
3
The Neural Basis of Working Memory
178
5
Neural Imaging of Working Memory in Human
180
3
Final Reflections
183
1
Further Readings
184
1
Acquisition on Memories
185
41
Stages of Memory
185
1
Practice and Trace Strength
186
11
The Power Law of Learning
187
4
Repetition and Conditioning
191
1
Long-Term Potentiation and the Environment
192
3
Significance of a Power Function
195
2
Elaborateness of Processing
197
6
The Generation Effect
198
2
Differences Between Elaboration and Strength
200
1
Incidental Versus Intentional Learning
201
1
Implications for Education
202
1
The Structure of Memory
203
18
The Brain and Memory
203
2
An Abstract Representation of Permanent Memory
205
1
Priming
206
1
Chunking
207
3
Representation of Knowledge
210
1
Memory for Visual Information
211
3
Effects of Imagery
214
1
Meaningful Memory for Sentences
215
1
Differential Decay of Sensory and Semantic Information
216
2
Kintsch's Propositional Theory of Text Memory
218
1
The Bransford and Franks Study
219
2
Memory Representation in Other Species
221
2
Sequential Memory of Pigeons
221
1
Representational Structures in Primates
222
1
Final Reflections
223
2
Further Readings
225
1
Retention of Memories
226
39
Overview
226
1
The Retention Function
227
7
Decay: The Power Law of Forgetting
228
3
Degree of Learning and Forgetting
231
1
Environmental and Neural Bases for the Power Law of Forgetting
232
2
Spacing Effects
234
5
Spacing Effects on the Retention Function
237
1
Spacing Effects in the Environment
238
1
Interference
239
17
Item-Based Interference
241
2
A Theory of Associative Interference
243
2
Relationship to the Rescorla--Wagner Theory
245
1
Recognition Memory and Multiple Cues
246
2
Item Strength and Interference
248
1
Interference with Preexperimental Memories
249
3
Context-Based Interference
252
2
Is All Forgetting a Matter of Interference?
254
2
Retention of Emotionally Charged Material
256
6
Freud's Repression Hypothesis
256
1
Arousal and Retention
257
2
The False Memory Syndrome
259
1
Eyewitness Memory and Flashbulb Memories
260
2
Final Reflections
262
2
Further Readings
264
1
Retrieval of Memories
265
39
Overview
265
1
The Relationship Between Various Explicit Measures of Memory
266
13
Recognition Versus Recall of Word Lists
268
2
Retrieval Strategies and Free Recall
270
1
Mnemonic Strategies for Recall
271
2
Evaluation of the Generate-Recognize Theory
273
3
Measuring Recognition Memory: The High-Threshold Model
276
1
Signal Detectability Theory
276
3
Conclusions about Recognition Versus Recall
279
1
Interactions Between Study and Test
279
11
Context Dependency of Memory
279
1
State-Dependent Memory
280
2
Mood-Dependency and Mood-Congruence Effects
282
2
Enconding-Specificity Principle and Transfer-Appropriate Processing
284
1
Reconstructive and Inferential Memory
285
2
Inferential Intrusions in Recall
287
2
Conclusions About Study--Test Interactions
289
1
Explicity Versus Implicit Memories
290
12
Feeling of Knowing
290
1
Familiarity
291
3
Retrieval Facilitation
294
1
Interactions with Study Conditions
295
3
Amnesia in Humans
298
3
Selective Amnesia
301
1
Final Reflections
302
1
Further Readings
303
1
Skill Acquisition
304
34
Overview
304
7
Power Law Learning
307
3
Stages of Skill Acquisition
310
1
The Cognitive Stage
311
8
Difference Reduction
312
2
Operator Subgoaling
314
5
The Associative Stage
319
6
The Conversion of Problem Solving into Retrieval
320
2
Production Rules
322
2
The Knowledge-Intensive Nature of Skill
324
1
The Autonomous Stage
325
11
The Motor Program
326
2
Noncognitive Control
328
1
Generality of Motor Programs
329
1
Learning of Motor Programs
330
1
Tuning of Motor Program: Schema Theory
331
3
The Role of Feedback
334
2
Final Reflections
336
1
Further Readings
337
1
Inductive Learning
338
39
Overview
338
2
Concept Acquisition
340
14
Concept-Identification Studies
341
2
Hypothesis Testing
343
3
Natural Concepts
346
3
A Schema Theory: Gluck and Bower
349
1
An Exemplar Theory: Medin and Schaffer
350
2
A Pluralistic View of Concept Acquistion
352
2
Causal Inference
354
10
Statistical Cues
355
2
Cues of Spatial and Temporal Contiguity
357
4
Kinematic Cues
361
1
Understanding Complex Systems
362
2
Conclusions about Causal Inference
364
1
Language Acquisition
364
11
Character of Language Acquisition
366
2
Theories of Past-Tense Acquisition
368
2
A Critical Period for Language Acquisition
370
1
Innate Language-Learning Abilities
371
1
Animal Language Learning
372
3
Final Reflections
375
1
Further Readings
376
1
Applications to Education
377
38
The Goals of Education
377
6
Reading
379
1
Mathematics
380
3
Psychology and Education
383
4
The Behaviorist Program
383
3
Mastery Learning
386
1
The Cognitive Approach
387
1
Reading Instruction
387
10
Nature of the Adult Skill
388
3
Phonetic Decoding Skills
391
2
Comprehension Skills
393
3
Conclusions about Reading Instruction
396
1
Mathematics Instruction
397
16
Basic Arithmetic Facts
399
1
Multicolumn Subtraction
400
1
Algebraic Word Problems
401
4
Geometric Proof Skills
405
2
Intelligent Tutoring Systems
407
4
The Role of Mathematics in Life
411
2
Final Reflections
413
1
Further Readings
414
1
Glossary
415
11
Bibliography
426
41
Photo Credits
467
2
Author Index
469
12
Subject Index
481