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Tables of Contents for A Field Guide to Eastern Forests North America
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Editor's Note
v
2
Preface
vii
3
Acknowledgments
x
 
1. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
1
7
The Search for Patterns
2
1
Fields and Forests
3
1
Area Covered
4
1
General Organization
4
2
The Seasonal Approach
6
1
Getting Started
6
2
2. FOREST FIELD MARKS
8
50
Seeking Patterns
8
1
Stratification
9
2
Types of Trees
11
2
Indicator Species
13
12
Species Richness
25
1
Soil Characteristics
26
2
Soil Moisture and Habitat
28
2
Evidence of Fire
30
1
Plant Population Patterns
31
2
A Forest's Age
33
1
Forest Gaps
34
1
Predicting a Forest's Future
35
1
Ecotones
35
1
Old Fields
36
2
Animals of the Forest
38
3
The Forest Food Chain and Ecological Pyramid
41
3
Plant and Animal Identification
44
6
Getting Started: A Forest Field-mark Questionnaire
50
2
Plate 1. Trees--Non-indicator Species
52
2
Plate 2. Mammals--Non-indicator Species
54
2
Plate 3. Forest Birds--Non-indicator Species
56
2
3. EASTERN FOREST COMMUNITIES
58
96
COMMUNITIES OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
58
3
What Determines a Community?
58
3
EASTERN FOREST COMMUNITIES
61
11
Boreal Forest
62
5
Boreal Bog
67
3
Jack Pine Forest
70
2
EASTERN DECIDUOUS FOREST COMMUNITIES
72
31
Northern Hardwood Forest
72
3
New England Alpine Community
75
2
Beech-Maple Forest
77
3
Maple-Basswood Forest
80
1
Oak-Hickory Forest
81
4
Northern Riverine (Floodplain) Forest
85
3
Northern Swamp Forest
88
2
Northern Pine-Oak Forest
90
2
Southern Mixed Pine-Oak Forest
92
3
White-cedar Swamp Forest
95
2
Mixed Appalachian Forest Communities
97
1
Appalachian Cove Forest
98
4
Appalachian Health Balds
102
1
SOUTHERN FOREST COMMUNITIES
103
19
Southern Hardwood Forest
103
3
Southern Riverine Forest
106
1
Baldcypress Swamp Forest
107
2
Southern Mixed Hardwood Swamp Forest
109
2
Subtropical Forest
111
2
Mangrove Swamp Forest
113
2
The Everglades
115
1
Texas Savanna
116
2
Prairie
118
2
Northern Savanna
120
2
Plate 4. Boreal Forest
122
2
Plate 5. Boreal Bog
124
2
Plate 6. Northern Hardwood Forest
126
2
Plate 7. Beech-Maple and Maple-Basswood Forests
128
2
Plate 8. Oak-Hickory Forest
130
2
Plate 9. Northern Riverine Forest
132
2
Plate 10. Northern Swamp Forest
134
2
Plate 11. Northern Pine-Oak Forest
136
2
Plate 12. Southern Mixed Pine-Oak Forest
138
2
Plate 13. Appalachian Cove Forest
140
2
Plate 14. Southern Hardwood Forest
142
2
Plate 15. Southern Riverine Forest
144
2
Plate 16. Baldcypress Swamp Forest
146
2
Plate 17. Southern Swamp Forest
148
2
Plate 18. Subtropical Forest
150
2
Plate 19. Mangrove Swamp Forest
152
2
4. DISTURBANCE AND PIONEER PLANTS
154
96
ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION: THE PROCESS OF VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT OVER TIME
159
51
Old Field Succession
160
2
Early Old Fields
162
4
Old Field Succession--A Detailed Look
166
6
Perennial Herbs of Old Fields
172
2
Composites
174
5
Other Native Perennial Herbs
179
1
Alien Perennial Herbs
180
3
Legumes
183
4
Herbaceous and Woody Vines
187
2
Shrubs
189
10
Riverine Zonation
199
1
Vegetation Development Without a Soil Base
200
1
Sand Dune Zonation
200
6
Rocky Outcrops
206
4
LANDSCAPE PATCHES, FOREST FRAGMENTATION
210
10
Forest Islands
210
1
Other Patch Types
211
1
Corridors and Peninsulas
212
1
The Ecology of Patches and Corridors and the Effect of Forest Fragmentation
213
1
Birds of Old Fields, Edges, and the Forest Interior
214
6
Plate 20. Herbs of Old Fields--Adaptations
220
2
Plate 21. Herbs of Old Fields--Biennials
222
2
Plate 22. Herbs of Old Fields--Native Perennials
224
2
Plate 23. Selected Goldenrods and Asters
226
2
Plate 24. Birds of Old Fields
228
2
Plate 25. Herbs of Old Fields--Native Annuals and One Alien Annual
230
2
Plate 26. Herbs of Old Fields--Alien Annuals
232
2
Plate 27. Herbs of Old Fields--Native Composites
234
2
Plate 28. Herbs of Old Fields--Alien Composites
236
2
Plate 29. Herbs of Old Fields--Alien Perennials
238
2
Plate 30. Herbs of Old Fields--Legumes
240
2
Plate 31. Vines of Old Fields
242
2
Plate 32. Shrubs and a Fern of Old Fields
244
2
Plate 33. Waxmyrtles and Heaths
246
2
Plate 34. Trees of Old Fields
248
2
5. ADAPTATION
250
19
Bird Migration
253
4
Insect-eating Plants
257
1
Plant Defenses
258
4
Other Adaptations
262
3
How Adaptation Occurs--Natural Selection
265
4
6. PATTERNS OF SPRING
269
51
FLOWER STRUCTURE AND POLLINATION
270
11
Flower Structure
270
2
Wind Pollination
272
1
Insect Pollination
273
8
AMPHIBIANS IN SPRING
281
13
Frogs and Toads (Anurans)
282
6
Salamanders
288
6
BIRDS IN SPRING
294
14
Migrant Waves and Weather
294
1
Blackbird Flocks
295
2
Bird Vocalization
297
1
Territoriality
298
2
Sexual Dimorphism
300
3
Delayed Plumage Maturation in Songbirds
303
2
Courtship Feeding
305
1
Woodcock Courtship Behavior
306
1
Predator Mobbing and Harassment
307
1
MAMMALS -- DISPERSAL AND ROAD KILLS
308
2
Plate 35. Wind-pollinated Trees
310
2
Plate 36. Insect-pollinated Trees
312
2
Plate 37. Selected Frogs and Toads
314
2
Plate 38. Selected Salamanders
316
2
Plate 39. Sexual Dimorphism in Bird Plumage
318
2
7. NATURE IN SUMMER
320
94
TREES: GEOMETRY, LEAF SIZE, AND LEAF ANGLE
321
3
HABITAT AND GROWTH FORM IN PLANTS
324
8
Forests and Woodlands
325
1
Open Dry Fields
325
2
Wet Habitats and Meadows
327
5
PATTERNS OF FRUITING AND SEED DISPERSAL
332
9
Mid- to Late-summer Fruiting Species
334
2
Fall High-quality Fruiting Species
335
1
Fall Low-quality Fruiting Species
335
1
Foliar Fruit Flags
336
1
Fruit-consuming Birds and Mammals
337
1
Adaptations of Fruit for Seed Dispersal
338
3
MILKWEED ECOLOGY
341
5
Milkweed Butterflies
343
2
Mimicry and the Monarch
345
1
PATTERNS OF INSECT OR SPIDER CAMOUFLAGE AND MIMICRY
346
8
Leaf and Twig Mimics
347
1
Bark Mimics
348
2
Flower Mimics
350
1
Bee and Wasp Mimics
350
2
Bee Killers
352
1
Clear-winged Moths
352
1
Ant Mimics
353
1
DISTRACTION PATTERNS OF BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS
354
6
A Complex Butterfly Mimicry System
356
2
Caterpillar Defenses
358
2
LEAF ROLLERS, FOLDERS, TIERS, AND MINERS
360
21
Leaf Rollers and Folders
360
2
Leaf Tiers
362
1
Leaf Miners
363
1
Gall-makers
364
4
Dragonfly Mating Patterns
368
5
Defense Adaptations of Snakes and Other Reptiles
373
1
Terrestrial Turtles
373
1
Lizards
374
1
Camouflage Patterning and Defensive Behaviors in Snakes
374
5
Warning Coloration and Mimicry in Snakes
379
2
PATTERNS OF BIRD NESTING
381
11
Nest Locations
382
2
Nest-building, Eggs, Incubation, and Defense
384
8
Plate 40. Wildflowers--Habitat and Growth Form
392
2
Plate 41. Goldenrods--Habitat and Growth Form
394
2
Plate 42. Milkweed Natural History
396
2
Plate 43. Insect and Spider Camouflage (Crypsis) and Mimicry
398
2
Plate 44. Insect Predation and Defense Behavior
400
2
Plate 45. Mimicry Patterns in Snakes and Butterflies
402
2
Plate 46. Adaptations of Reptiles
404
2
Plate 47. Bird Nesting Behavior
406
2
Plate 48. Mid- to Late-Summer Fruits
408
2
Plate 49. High-quality Fruits of Late-Summer and Fall
410
2
Plate 50. High/Low-quality Fruits of Late Summer and Fall
412
2
8. AUTUMN AND WINTER
414
45
SOIL NATURAL HISTORY
415
2
The Litter Layer
415
2
THE DECOMPOSERS
417
19
Fungi
418
4
Litter and Soil Animals
422
13
The Litter-Soil Food Web
435
1
PLANTS IN FALL
436
6
Leaf Color Changes
436
3
Anatomy of a Twig
439
1
Tree Trunks and Growth Rings
439
2
Mast Years
441
1
BIRDS: MIXED FORAGING FLOCKS
442
8
Irruptions of Bird Species
445
4
Winter Adaptations of Birds
449
1
MAMMALS: VOLE CYCLES
450
2
Plate 51. Mixed Foraging Flocks
452
2
Plate 52. Irruptive Bird Species--Periodic Winter Invaders
454
2
Plate 53. Selected Fungi
456
3
Index
459