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Tables of Contents for Industry, Competitiveness and Technological Capabilities in Chile
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
List of Tables
x
2
List of Figures
xii
1
Foreword
xiii
 
Sanjaya Lall
1 Introduction
1
3
2 A Dynamic Concept of Comparative Advantage: Technological Capabilities and Trade Theories
4
25
2.1 Introduction
4
1
2.2 `Conventional' Theories of Comparative Advantage and Their Relevance for Developing Countries
5
8
2.2.1 Assumptions of the Neoclassical Approach and Differences with the TC Approach
7
6
2.3 On the Concept of Technology and Technological Change for Developing Countries
13
7
2.3.1 Technological Capabilities
15
3
2.3.2. The Acquisition of Technological Capabilities
18
2
2.4. Implications for Dynamic Comparative Advantage
20
4
2.5. Conclusions and Specific Hypotheses of the Study
24
5
3 Macroeconomic Policy Framework and Economic Performance in Chile: 1974-88
29
53
3.1. Introduction
29
3
3.2. The Macroeconomic Framework: Liberalization, Adjustment Policies and Structural Reforms
32
20
3.2.1. 1974-81
32
1
Price Deregulation
33
1
The Role of the State and Fiscal Policies
33
3
Liberalization of International Transactions
36
4
Liberalization of the Domestic Financial Market and of the Capital Account
40
1
Labour Market
41
1
Administrative and Infrastructural Reforms
42
1
Sectoral Policies towards Natural Resources and Other Industrial Sectors
43
2
3.2.2. 1982-88
45
7
3.3. Structural Change and Economic Performance of the Manufacturing Sector
52
9
3.4. International Performance: Some Evidence on Export Diversification
61
6
3.5. Conclusions and Open Questions
67
1
Appendix 3.1: Methodology to Classify Exports According to Labour Skill and Technological Intensity (Used in Chapters 3 and 4)
68
1
Appendix 3.2: Statistical Tables on the Chilean Economy
69
13
4 National Technological Capabilities and Manufactured Export Performance: a Comparative Approach
82
40
4.1. Introduction
82
1
4.2. Manufactured Export Performance
83
7
4.3. Some Evidence on National Technological Capabilities
90
27
4.3.1. General Characteristics of the Sample Countries
90
4
4.3.2. Incentives to the Building of NTC: Industrial Policies and International Trade Policy Orientation
94
1
4.3.2.1. Trade Policy
95
8
4.3.2.2. Industrial Policies
103
4
4.3.3. Capabilities: Physical and Human Capital and Technology Efforts and Sources
107
1
4.3.3.1. Physical Capital
107
1
4.3.3.2. Human Capital
108
4
4.3.3.3. Technological Efforts and Sources
112
5
4.4. Concluding Remarks and Policy Implications
117
3
Appendix 4.1: Export Patterns, Selected Countries, 1966, 1975, 1986
120
2
5 An Econometric Analysis of the Determinants of Chile's Comparative Advantage in Non-Traditional Manufactured Goods
122
26
5.1. Introduction
122
1
5.2. Other Empirical Studies on the Determinants of RCA for LDCs
123
3
5.3. The Theoretical Model and the Variables Employed
126
7
5.3.1. Data Sources
128
1
5.3.2. Dependent Variables
128
1
5.3.3. Independent Variables
129
1
Human Capital and Skills
129
1
Technology Sourcing and Technological Efforts
130
1
Industry Structure
131
1
Physical Capital Intensity
132
1
Resource Endowments
132
1
5.4. Results of the Regression Analysis
133
13
5.4.1. Tests for the Influence of Technological Effort
141
1
5.4.2. Natural Resource-Intensive Exports
141
2
5.4.3. Labour-Intensive Exports
143
3
5.5. Summary and Conclusions
146
2
6 A Firm-Level Approach to Comparative Advantage: the Case of Selected Exporters of Manufactures
148
47
6.1. Introduction
148
1
6.2. A Simple Theoretical Model of an Exporting Firm
149
5
6.3. The Empirical Evidence
154
29
6.3.1. Investment Capabilities
158
2
6.3.2. Production Capabilities: Process and Product Engineering
160
1
6.3.2.1. Process Engineering
160
4
6.3.2.2. Product Engineering
164
6
6.3.2.3. Sources of Technology Information
170
3
6.3.3. Human Capital
173
3
6.3.4. Other Institutional Forms of Support to TC and Exports
176
4
6.3.5. Firms' own Perceptions of Comparative Advantage
180
3
6.4. Conclusions and Policy Implications
183
3
Appendix 6.1: Sample Representativeness of Total and Non-Traditional Exports
186
1
Appendix 6.2: Text of the Questionnaire to a Sample of Non-Traditional Exporters. Santiago, Chile, August 1988-January 1989
186
9
7 Conclusions and Policy Implications
195
9
Notes
204
14
References
218
17
Index
235