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Tables of Contents for Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Preface
ix
 
Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology
1
24
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
3
1
Basic Definitions
4
4
Empirical Examination of Culture
8
2
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research
10
1
Cultural Syndromes
11
1
Sociobiological Approach
12
1
Sociological Approach
12
2
Ecocultural Approach
14
1
The Cultural Mixtures Approach: A New Cross-Cultural Psychology in the Twenty-First Century?
15
1
The Integrative Approach: A Summary
16
3
What Is Indigenous Psychology?
19
1
What Is Ethnocentrism?
19
1
What Is Multiculturalism?
20
1
A Brief History of the Field
20
5
Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research
25
30
Goals of Cross-Cultural Research
27
1
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology
27
2
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales
29
1
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Linkages and Differences
29
2
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology
31
1
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study
32
1
Sample Selection
33
2
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology
35
1
Survey Methods
36
1
Experimental Studies
37
1
Content-Analysis
38
1
Focus-Group Methodology
39
1
Meta-Analysis: Research of Research
40
1
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation
40
2
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles
42
1
On Smilarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications
43
1
Cultural Dichotomies
44
2
Avoiding Bias for Generalizations
46
2
Know More about Cultures You Examine!
48
7
Critical Thining in Cross-Cultural Psychology
55
44
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
57
2
Differentiating Dictomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?
59
2
The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
61
3
The Barnum Effect: ``One-Size-Fits-All'' Descriptions
64
2
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses
66
3
The Representativenss Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
69
3
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
72
3
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Understanding the Impact of External Influences
75
4
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
79
2
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing ``What'' with ``Why''
81
3
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways
84
3
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between ``Is'' and ``Should''
87
4
The Belief Perseverance Effect: ``Don't Confuse Me with the Facts!''
91
4
Conclusions: ``To Metathink or Not to Metathink?''
95
4
Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Conciousness
99
31
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles
100
2
How Culture Influences What We Perceive
102
2
How People Perceive Depictions
104
1
How People Scan Pictures
105
1
Perception of Depth
106
1
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?
106
1
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing Pictures
107
1
Perception of Color
108
2
Other Senses
110
2
Perception of Time
112
2
Perception of the Beautiful
114
2
Perception of Music
116
1
Consciousness and Culture
117
2
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams
119
4
Beyond Altered States of Consciousness
123
7
Intelligence
130
34
Defining Intelligence
131
3
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores
134
3
Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior
137
1
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?
138
2
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases
140
1
A Word about ``Cultural Literacy''
141
2
Environment and Intelligence
143
1
Socioeconomic Factors
144
2
The Family Factors
146
1
``Natural Selection'' and IQ Scores?
147
1
Cultural Values of Cognition
148
3
General Cognition: What Is ``Underneath'' Intelligence?
151
3
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems
154
1
Culture, Tests, and Motivation
155
2
IQ, Culture, and Social Justice
157
2
And in the End, Moral Values
159
5
Emotion
164
27
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience
166
3
You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience
169
2
Emotions: Different or Universal?
171
1
Physiological Arousal
171
2
The Meaning of Preceding Events
173
3
Emotion as an Evaluation
176
1
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way
177
1
How People Assess Emotional Expereince
178
1
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress
179
1
Expression of Emotion
180
4
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger
184
1
Emotion and Inclination to Act
185
1
Emotion and Judgment
186
5
Motivation and Behavior
191
28
Sociobiology: A Glance into Evolution
192
2
Social Science: See the Society First
194
1
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation
194
1
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis
195
1
Humanistic Theories
196
2
Learning and Motivation: Cognitive Theories
198
1
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference
199
1
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders
200
1
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation
200
5
Aggressive Motivation and Violence
205
5
Culture and Sexuality
210
4
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
214
1
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities
215
4
Human Development and Socialization
219
28
Development and Socialization
220
1
Quality of Life and the Child's Development
221
1
Norms, Customs, and Child Care
222
2
Parental Values and Expectations
224
2
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
226
2
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
228
1
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg
229
2
Developmental Stages
231
1
Life before Birth: Prenatal Period
232
1
First Steps: Infancy
233
2
Discovering the World: Childhood
235
3
Major Rehearsal: Adolescence
238
3
Adulthood
241
1
Late Adulthood
242
5
Mental Disorders
247
30
American Background DSM-IV
249
1
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology
249
3
Central and Peripheral Symptoms
252
2
Environment, Culture, and Mental Health
254
2
Schizophrenia
256
1
Depressive Disorders
257
2
Culture and Suicide
259
2
Anxiety Disorders
261
1
Dementia
262
1
Attention-Defict/Hyperactivity Disorder (AHDH)
263
1
Persoanlity Disorders
264
1
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?
265
4
Psychodiagnostic Biases
269
1
Psychotherapy
270
1
Culture Match?
271
6
Social Perception and Social Cognition
277
26
The Nature of Attitude
279
1
Values
280
2
Western and Non-Western Values
282
1
Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory
283
1
Avoding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance
284
1
Psychological Dogmatism
285
1
Social Attribution
286
1
Attribution as Locus of Control
287
2
Explaining the Behavior of Others
289
2
Attribution of Success and Failure
291
1
Self-Perception
292
2
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body Weight?
294
1
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
295
2
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations
297
6
Social Interaction
303
24
Universal Interaction
304
4
Direct Contacts
308
2
Conformity
310
2
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?
312
4
Following Orders
316
2
Social Influence
318
1
Feeling Good about Some Views
319
1
Is Social Loafing Universal?
320
1
Cooperation and Competition
321
1
Leaders: Born or Bred?
322
5
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights
327
25
Resources and Health
329
1
Prejudice: Is It Inevitable?
330
3
Cross-Cultural Psychology and Negotiations
333
2
Streotypes in Daily Life
335
2
Acculturative Stress
337
2
Culture and Cognitive Tests
339
1
Race and Perception of Political Candidates
340
1
Immigration and Immigrants
341
2
Cross-Cultural Psychology and Human Rights
343
2
Culture, Ethnicity, and Equality
345
2
Discrimination and Minority Status
347
1
Multiculturalism and Religion: A Campus Context
348
1
Conclusion
349
3
Appendices
352
5
References
357
32
Author Index
389
6
Subject Index
395