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Tables of Contents for Animal Learning and Cognition
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
The Study of Learning in Animals
1
13
Introduction-Learning in the Context of Evolution
2
5
Adaptation and Evolution
2
2
Learning, Adaptation, and Natural Selection
4
3
The Experimental Study of Learning
7
3
Definition of Learning
7
1
Some Research Principles
8
1
Independent and Dependent Variables
9
1
The Generality of Learning
10
1
Why Study Learning in Animals?
11
3
Habituation and Sensitization
14
16
Habituation
15
15
Examples of Habituation
16
4
The Neural Basis of Habituation in Aplysia
20
2
Some Complexities
22
2
Sensitization
24
6
Pavlovian Conditioning I: Introduction and Basic Phenomena
30
21
Introduction and Historical Background
31
2
Empiricism and Nativism
31
1
Reflexes
32
1
Examples of Pavlovian Conditioning
33
2
Elements of Conditioning
35
5
The Unconditioned Stimulus and Unconditional Response
35
1
The Conditioned Stimulus
36
2
The Conditioned Response
38
2
Basic Conditioning Phenomena
40
11
Acquisition
40
3
Extinction and Related Phenomena
43
1
Generalization
44
3
Discrimination
47
4
Pavlovian Conditioning II: Expansion of the Paradigm and Parameters of Conditioning
51
32
Expansion of the Basic Pavlovian Paradigm
52
7
Directed Behavior
52
3
Conditioned Food Aversion
55
4
Parameters of Conditioning
59
24
Temporal Factors
60
11
Characteristics of the US
71
3
Characteristics of the CS
74
3
Intermittent CS, US Pairings
77
4
Intertrial Interval
81
2
Pavlovian Conditioning III: Selected Topics
83
28
Inhibition
84
11
Definition and Examples of Inhibition
84
4
Conditions that Do and Do Not Produce Inhibition
88
6
Summary
94
1
Second Order Conditioning
95
2
Sensory Preconditioning
97
3
Conditioned Drug Effects
100
6
Conditioned Tolerance
100
4
Other Conditioned Drug Effects
104
2
Brain Mechanisms and Conditioning
106
5
Cortical Mechanisms
106
1
The Limbic System
106
2
The Midbrain and Brain Stem
108
1
Other Research
108
3
Pavlovian Conditioning IV: Theoretical Analysis and Practical Relevance
111
36
Contiguity and Contingency
112
11
Blocking
112
3
Contingency
115
8
Summary and Conclusions
123
1
Cognitive Interpretation of Pavlovian Conditioning
123
8
Introduction
123
1
Responding is Not Necessary for Conditioning
124
2
Behaviorally Silent Conditioning
126
1
Performance Factors
127
1
CS and US Representation
128
1
Response Generation
129
2
Summary
131
1
Preparatory Response Interpretation of Conditioning
131
3
Formal Models of Conditioning
134
9
The Wagner-Rescorla Model
134
 
The Pearce-Hall Model
13
130
Relevance of Pavlovian Conditioning Research
143
4
Instrumental Learning I: Introduction and Effects of Deprivation, Reward Magnitude, and Reward Delay
147
25
Introduction
148
8
Examples of Instrumental Learning
148
2
The Law of Effect
150
2
Shaping
152
1
Pavlovian Directed Behaviors and Instrumental Learning
152
4
Extinction
156
1
Reward Variables
156
16
Deprivation State
156
4
Reward Magnitude
160
5
Delay of Reward
165
7
Instrumental Learning II: Schedule of Reinforcement
172
25
Introduction
173
1
Discrete Trials Experiments
174
10
Frustration Theory
175
4
Sequential Theory
179
4
Reinforcement Level
183
1
Steady State Behavior
184
13
Continuous Reinforcement
186
1
Fixed Ratio
186
2
Variable Ratio
188
1
Fixed Interval
189
3
Variable Interval
192
1
Differential Reinforcement for Rate
193
4
Instrumental Learning III: Aversive Conditioning
197
37
Introduction
198
1
Conditioned Suppression
199
3
Escape Behavior
202
1
Avoidance Learning
203
15
Avoidance Tasks and Results
204
5
Theoretical Interpretations of Avoidance Behavior
209
7
Extinction of Avoidance Responding
216
2
Punishment
218
5
Variables that Influence the Effectiveness of Punishment
218
5
Learned Helplessness
223
11
The Interference Effect
223
2
Interpretations of the Interference Effect
225
5
Possible Human Relevance
230
4
Instrumental Learning IV: Generalization, Discrimination, and Attention
234
35
Generalization
235
4
Generalization and Discrimination
239
17
Examples of Discrimination Learning
240
2
Influence of Discrimination Training on Generalization
242
14
Selective Attention
256
13
Spence's Theory of Discrimination Learning
256
1
Alternative Theories of Discrimination Learning
257
2
Evidence Favoring an Attention Concept
259
10
Instrumental Learning V: Selected Topics
269
32
Conditioned Reinforcement
270
4
Measurement of Conditioned Reinforcement
271
2
Applications
273
1
Choice Behavior
274
11
Maze Learning-Early Studies
274
2
Recent Maze Studies
276
1
Choice Involving Operant Schedules
277
8
Foraging
285
16
Field Studies
285
4
Laboratory Studies
289
12
Associative Analysis of Instrumental Learning
301
20
Introduction
302
1
Procedural Comparison with Pavlovian Conditioning
302
3
Associative Structure of Instrumental Learning
305
13
Effectiveness of Response-Reinforcer Contingency
305
1
Response-Reinforcer Associations
306
7
Other Associative Structures
313
5
Alternative Interpretations of Instrumental Behavior
318
3
Cognitive Processes in Animals
321
28
Introduction
322
2
Expectancy and Anticipation
324
1
Cognitive Maps
325
2
Concepts and Rules
327
7
Learning Set
327
4
Matching to Sample
331
1
Natural Concept Learning
332
1
Serial Pattern Learning
333
1
Memory
334
8
Associative Memory and Memory of Associations
336
1
Active and Inactive Memory
336
2
Spatial and Temporal Memory
338
1
Working Memory
339
3
Summary
342
1
Inference
342
3
Transitive Inference
342
1
Reasoning
343
2
Language
345
1
Self-Awareness
346
3
General and Specific Principles of Learning
349
18
Introduction
350
1
Programmed Learning
351
4
Imprinting
351
3
Bird Song
354
1
Summary of Programmed Learning
355
1
Conditioned Taste Aversions
355
5
General Overview
356
1
Selective Associations
356
2
Long Delay Learning
358
1
Potentiation
359
1
Summary
360
1
Differential Reinforceability of Responses
360
2
Misbehavior
362
2
Summary and Conclusions
364
3
References
367
38
Author Index
405
10
Subject Index
415