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Tables of Contents for Introduction to Relational Databases and SQL Programming
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Introduction
xvii
 
Chapter 1 Introducing Relational Databases
1
15
What Exactly Is a Database?
1
2
Tables
1
1
Rows/Records
2
1
Columns/Fields
2
1
How Is a Database Different from a Spreadsheet?
3
5
Many Rows
3
1
Many Users Simultaneously
4
1
Security
4
1
Relational Abilities
5
1
Constraints to Ensure Data Quality
6
1
Case Study-Clapham Specialty Store
6
1
Designing Your First Database
7
1
How Will Knowing This Help You?
8
1
When Developing Software
8
1
When Doing Database Administration
8
1
When Doing Business Analysis
8
1
If You Just Want to Know How to Use Databases Better
9
1
History of SQL
9
2
Chapter 1 Review
11
5
Chapter 2 Storing and Retrieving Data: The Basics
16
36
Prepare to Work with a Database
17
3
Creating a Table
17
1
Inserting Records
18
1
Selecting Records
18
1
Dropping a Table
18
2
Creating Tables
20
12
Guidelines for Naming Tables and Columns
21
3
Creating a More Involved Table
24
6
Determining a Table's Structure
30
1
NULL and NOT NULL Columns
31
1
Inserting Data-Additional Techniques
32
5
How to Insert Records Containing NULL Values
32
3
Creating and Populating a Table
35
2
How to Insert Data That Contains Apostrophes
37
1
Viewing Data from a Table-Additional Techniques
37
8
Selecting Specific Columns
38
1
Changing Column Order
38
1
Performing Math Using Data in a Table
39
2
Connecting Two or More Pieces of Text Together
41
1
Assigning Aliases to Columns
42
1
Changing the Data Values You View
43
2
Chapter 2 Review
45
7
Chapter 3 Performing Advanced Data Manipulation
52
28
SQL Command Categories
53
1
Data Definition
53
1
Data Manipulation
53
1
Data Control
53
1
Data Retrieval
54
1
Transaction Control
54
1
Limiting Which Records You Select
54
8
Filtering Records Based on Numbers
55
4
Filtering Records Based on Text
59
1
Filtering Records Based on Dates
60
2
Viewing Records in a Different Order
62
2
Sorting on Individual Columns
63
1
Sorting on Multiple Columns
63
1
Showing Only Unique Values
64
2
Selecting from the DUAL Table
66
1
Modifying Data in a Table
67
1
Removing Records from a Table
68
1
Deleting Rows Matching Specific Criteria
68
1
Deleting All Rows
68
1
Transaction Control
69
6
Undoing DML Transactions
69
3
Making Data Available to Others
72
1
Implicit and Explicit COMMITS
73
1
Performing Advanced Data Manipulation
74
1
Chapter 3 Review
75
5
Chapter 4 Controlling SQL*Plus
80
24
Editing Prior Commands
81
4
Using a Text Editor
81
1
Using the EDIT Command
82
1
Line-Level Editing
83
2
Copying and Pasting
85
2
Using Your Mouse to Edit Text
86
1
Clearing the SQL*Plus Screen
87
1
Customizing the SQL*Plus Environment
87
2
Customizing Using the SQL*Plus Menu
87
2
Customizing Using Commands
89
1
Saving Environment Customizations
89
1
Producing More Readable Output
90
4
Formatting Numbers in SQL*Plus
90
1
Formatting Text in SQL*Plus
91
1
Formatting Column Headings in SQL*Plus
92
2
Spooling Output to Disk
94
1
SQL Script Files
95
4
Creating a Script File
95
1
Running a Script File
96
1
Using Variables In Script Files
96
3
Chapter 4 Review
99
5
Chapter 5 Oracle SQL Built-in Functions
104
48
Implementing Commonly Used Single-Row Functions
105
34
System Variables
106
2
Number Functions
108
2
Text Functions
110
10
Using Single-Row Functions
120
1
Date
121
5
Data Conversion
126
6
Other Functions
132
7
Implementing Commonly Used Group Functions
139
8
Grouping Data via the GROUP BY Clause
142
1
Including and Excluding Grouped Rows via the HAVING Clause
143
2
Using Group Functions
145
2
Chapter 5 Review
147
5
Chapter 6 Indexes, Joins, and Subqueries
152
36
Creating the Test Tables
153
2
Indexes
155
2
Indexes in Databases
155
1
How to Create Indexes
156
1
Types of Indexes
157
4
B Tree Indexes
157
2
Bitmap Indexes
159
1
Bitmap Versus B-Tree Indexes
160
1
Function-Based Indexes
160
1
When to Use Indexes
161
1
Relationships Between Tables
162
15
Creating an Index
163
1
Writing SELECT Statements to Display Data from More Than One Table
164
3
Types of Joins
167
6
Set Operators
173
4
Writing Subqueries
177
6
What Is a Subquery?
177
1
Types of Problems Subqueries Can Solve
177
1
Single-Row Subqueries
177
2
Multirow Subqueries
179
1
Multicolumn 5ubqueries
180
1
Correlated Subqueries
181
2
Chapter 6 Review
183
5
Chapter 7 Creating a Program with PL/SQL
188
42
What Is PL/SQL7
189
7
Describing PL/SQL
192
1
Who's Who in SQL, PL/SQL, and SQL*Plus
193
1
Stored Procedures, Functions, and Triggers
194
2
Stored Procedures and SQL Scripts
196
1
Structure of a PL/SQL Block
196
3
Header Section
197
1
Declaration Section
197
1
Execution Section
198
1
Exception Section
198
1
Creating a Simple PL/SQL Procedure
199
2
Calling Procedures and Functions
200
1
PL/SQL Variables and Constants
201
4
Declaring PL/SQL Variables
202
1
Declaring PL/SQL Constants
202
1
Assigning Values to Variables
203
1
Using Variables
204
1
Control Structures in PL/SQL
205
12
IF Statement
206
2
Loops
208
2
Cursors
210
5
Nested Loops and Cursor Example
215
2
Error Handling
217
6
Exceptions
217
1
System-Defined Exceptions
218
2
Programmer-Defined Exceptions
220
1
Creating a Programmer-Defined Exception
221
2
Chapter 7 Review
223
7
Chapter 8 Reading a Data Model
230
16
Overview of Data Model Design
231
2
Purpose and Benefits of Models
231
1
Relational Integrity: Quality Data
232
1
Types of Data Models
233
3
Conceptual Model
233
1
Logical Data Model
234
1
Physical Data Model
234
2
Reading an Entity Relationship Diagram
236
6
Entities
236
1
Attributes
237
1
Relationships
238
2
Cardinality and Optionality Notations
240
1
Reading an Entity Relationship Diagram
241
1
Chapter 8 Review
242
4
Chapter 9 Basics of Designing a Database's Structure
246
26
The Business Specification: Let the Data Tell You Where It Goes
247
1
Selecting the Database's Grain
247
1
Entities and Attributes
248
3
Identifying Records Reliably: Primary Keys
251
4
Why Do You Need a Primary Key?
251
1
Composite Primary Keys
251
1
Natural Primary Keys vs. Surrogate Primary Keys
252
2
Relationships: Referring to Data in Other Tables
254
1
Common Data Model Standards
255
3
Crow's Foot (IE)
256
1
IDEF1X
256
2
Relationships: Cardinality and Optionality
258
6
One-to-Many
258
1
Many-to-Many
259
1
One-to-One
260
1
Optionality
261
2
Dependency: Identifying Relationships
263
1
Recursive vs. Binary
264
1
Modeling Multiple Categories: Supertype and Subtypes
264
4
Creating Basic Data Models
265
1
Categories, Supertypes, and Subtypes
265
2
Implementing Super/Subtypes in a Physical Model
267
1
Chapter 9 Review
268
4
Chapter 10 Normalization
272
22
The Process of Normalization
273
1
Dependency
273
2
Dependents and Determinants
273
2
The First Three Normal Forms
275
4
First Normal Form: Eliminate Repeating Groups
275
2
Second Normal Form: Eliminate Redundant Data
277
1
Third Normal Form: Eliminate Attributes Not Dependent on the Primary Key
278
1
Apply the Normal Forms to a Database Model
279
1
The Fourth and Fifth Normal Forms
279
4
Fourth Normal Form: Isolate Independent Multiple Relationships
280
2
Fifth Normal Form: Isolate Semantically Related Multiple Relationships
282
1
The Rules You Really Need
283
1
Anomalies in the Data
283
3
Normalizing the Data
284
1
Insert
285
1
Delete
285
1
Update
285
1
A Tax on Being Law-Abiding
286
1
Moving from Logical to Physical Models
286
3
Choosing Your Engine
286
1
Changing Terminology
287
1
Translating Super- and Subtypes
287
2
Chapter 10 Review
289
5
Chapter 11 Analyzing Data Quality Issues
294
44
Datatypes and Missing Data: Quality Basics
295
6
Handling Missing Values
295
1
Apples and Oranges: Defining Datatypes
296
2
Choosing a Datatype
298
1
Creating a Table and Inserting Data
299
2
Converting Datatypes: Weak and Strong Typing
301
1
Data Domains: Sanity Checks
301
1
Domains as Sets of Values
301
1
Column and Table Constraints
302
5
Column Constraints
303
2
Table Constraints
305
2
Primary Key Constraints and Indexes
307
5
Uniqueness and How to Enforce It
307
3
Alternate Keys
310
1
Other Indexes
311
1
Foreign Key Constraints: Values from Other Tables
312
14
Adding the Constraint
313
1
Implementing Cardinality and Optionality
314
2
Cascading Effects
316
3
Cascade Delete on a Recursive Relationship
319
2
The Cascades That Don't
321
1
Creating the Movie Database
322
4
Declarative Relational Integrity: Pros and Cons
326
3
Declaring Foreign Key Constraints
327
1
Triggers and Procedural Code
327
2
Naming Constraints: Make It Easy for the Programmers
329
3
Naming Tables and Columns
330
1
Naming Check Constraints
330
1
Naming Foreign Key Constraints
330
1
Naming Indexes
331
1
Chapter 11 Review
332
6
Chapter 12 Other Useful Oracle Techniques
338
32
Transferring Data Between Tables
339
5
Transferring Data Using INSERT
342
1
Creating a New Table Based on an Existing One
343
1
Renaming Tables
344
1
Altering a Table's Structure
345
3
Adding Columns
345
1
Changing Column Datatypes
345
1
Changing NULL Options
346
2
Views
348
10
Creating a View
349
1
Updateable Views
350
1
Dropping Views
351
1
Top N Analysis
352
1
Creating a View on a Table
353
5
Other Database Objects
358
7
Sequences
358
4
Synonyms
362
3
Chapter 12 Review
365
5
Appendix ON the CD-ROMs
370
3
About Oracle 9i Standard Edition for Windows
370
3
System Requirements
370
1
Registering with the Oracle Technology Network
371
1
Installing Oracle 9i Standard Edition
372
1
Glossary
373
12
Index
385