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: A focal point in the ecclesiastical history of a new nation is the hour when the bishops of that country establish strong and lasting ties with the Holy See. However heroic may be its pioneers, however many martyrs baptize its soil with their blood, however many priests in rude churches minister to souls, such an infant church remains in the stage of formation until the time that, once and for all, close communications are established with Rome. Such was pre-eminently the case in the ecclesiastical history of the United States. Before the American Revolution (1775-1783) the few missionaries had but a tenuous bond to Rome through the Vicar-Apostolic of the London District in England. After the revolution, John Carroll was first named prefect-apostolic and later Bishop of Baltimora, with the unusual permission being given to the priests in the Unites States to nominate their own bishop and select his See city.