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: Despite years of liberalization, African manufacturing is conspicuously unable to compete in the global market. Its exports are minuscule, its response to competition is weak, technical efficiency is low and there are few signs of technological dynamism. Part of the problem, the authors argue, lies in the institutions designed to help firms import, use and improve technology. This unique study draws on extensive fieldwork assessing technology systems in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe in the context of their export competitiveness. Its emphasis is on the role of technology systems in building industrial competitiveness and in this it finds deficiencies in the systems in all these countries, though there are also significant differences between them. Comparisons are made with more successful economies, particularly those of East Asia, and policy implications are drawn for the strengthening of technology support systems. Central to the book is its combination of academic analysis with a strong policy focus - policy implications are drawn for each case-study country. Failing to Compete will be of interest to all academics and scholars of development economics, international competitiveness and technology studies.