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: Markov Random Fields in Image Segmentation provides an introduction to the fundamentals of Markovian modeling in image segmentation as well as a brief overview of recent advances in the field. Segmentation is formulated within an image labeling framework, where the problem is reduced to assigning labels to pixels. In a probabilistic approach, label dependencies are modeled by Markov random fields (MRF) and an optimal labeling is determined by Bayesian estimation, in particular maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. The main advantage of MRF models is that prior information can be imposed locally through clique potentials. MRF models usually yield a non-convex energy function. The minimization of this function is crucial in order to find the most likely segmentation according to the MRF model. Classical optimization algorithms including simulated annealing and deterministic relaxation are treated along with more recent graph cut-based algorithms. The primary goal of this monograph is to demonstrate the basic steps to construct an easily applicable MRF segmentation model and further develop its multi-scale and hierarchical implementations as well as their combination in a multilayer model. Representative examples from remote sensing and biological imaging are analyzed in full detail to illustrate the applicability of these MRF models. Furthermore, a sample implementation of the most important segmentation algorithms is available as supplementary software. Markov Random Fields in Image Segmentation is an invaluable resource for every student, engineer, or researcher dealing with Markovian modeling for image segmentation.