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: Life on the Mississippi (1883) is a memoir by Mark Twain of his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War, and also a travel book, recounting his trip along the Mississippi River from St. Louis to New Orleans many years after the War. The book begins with a brief history of the river as reported by Europeans and Americans, beginning with the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1542. It continues with anecdotes of Twainâs training as a steamboat pilot, as the âcubâ (apprentice) of an experienced pilot, Horace E. Bixby. He describes, with great affection, the science of navigating the ever-changing Mississippi River in a section that was first published in 1876, entitled âOld Times on the Mississippiâ. Although Twain was actually 21 when he began his training, he uses artistic license to make himself seem somewhat younger, referring to himself as a âfledglingâ and a âboyâ who âran away from homeâ to seek his fortune on the river, and playing up his own callowness and naÃ¯vetÃ©. In the second half, Twain narrates his trip many years later on a steamboat from St. Louis to New Orleans. He describes the competition from railroads, and the new, large cities, and adds his observations on greed, gullibility, tragedy, and bad architecture. He also tells some stories that are most likely tall tales.