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: Arkansas endured many forms of guerilla warfare during the Civil War. Arkansas was a Southern state with a significant Unionist population and this divide fueled and shaped much of the conflict. Arkansas was unique in that the Confederate commander sought to make up for conventional weakness by initiating guerilla warfare directed at the occupying Union forces. In response, Union commanders responded with punitive actions against individuals and communities which did little to reduce guerilla activity and served to alienate the local population. As the war progressed, guerilla bands shifted from military targets and became progressively more terrorist, criminal, and once a Unionist state government was installed, insurgent. The Union armyâs role also changed as the main war moved on from the Mississippi basin and Arkansas. The emphasis shifted to extending Federal authority and supporting loyal local governments. The army's organization and tactics evolved into a combination of locally raised troops, intelligence led operations, isolation of the guerillas, and political reconciliation, which led to a successful campaign countering the guerillas.