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: This book is based on the AMS Short Course, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Number Theory, held in Orono, Maine, in August 1991. This Short Course provided some views into the great breadth of applications of number theory outside cryptology and highlighted the power and applicability of number-theoretic ideas. Because number theory is one of the most accessible areas of mathematics, this book will appeal to a general mathematical audience as well as to researchers in other areas of science and engineering who wish to learn how number theory is being applied outside of mathematics. All of the chapters are written by leading specialists in number theory and provides excellent introduction to various applications.