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As the number of peacekeeping efforts conducted internationally under the aegis of military forces increases, there is more pressure to resolve the dilemma inherent in all peacekeeping activitieshow to combine efficiency with legitimacy. This dilemma is particularly acute in the many conflicts that have mushroomed in the Eurasian region following the disintegration of the Soviet state. Given the history of Soviet Russian repression of ethnic-national entities, can Russiathe USSR's primary heirbe relied on to resolve rather than inflame conflicts in the other post-Soviet states and regions? Would multilateral efforts under the direction of international bodies such as the United Nations and the OSCE be more effective?In order to answer these questions, the contributors to this timely volume evaluate the factors that guarantee Russia's intervention in its Near Abroad. They debate whether Russian peacekeeping” is legitimate according to international norms or whether it may be a harbinger of neo-imperialism.” Finally, they explore the origins and effectiveness of Russia's intervention in four cases of regional conflict and discuss the complexities of broader mulilateral involvement.