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: One of the most profound social changes in the modern world came with the establishment of police forces in the 19th century. In England, law enforcement had for many centuries been the preserve of the traditional parish constable; within a few decades, the change was made to the professional forces which are now part of society. This volume looks in detail at the making of England's county police forces: how, why and when it happened. It analyzes both the pressures making for this change and the forces of resistance to it. It makes use of primary material, including the answers to the questionnaire sent to the counties in 1836, to recreate the world of the parish constable in their last decade of importance. It examines the arguments of reformers and administrators, the debates within county Quarter Sessions about whether they should adopt the new police, and the early experiments and experiences of the new paid police.