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: This is the first comprehensive volume devoted to recent studies of the biological basis of reinforcement. The contributors, all prominent physiological psychologists or behavioral pharmacologists, have extensively analysed current research on drugs, brain neurotransmitters, and reinforcement in animals. They present convergent evidence that implicates the nucleus accumbens and its dopaminergic afferents in reward. Controversial themes include the identity of the neurons mediating intracranial self-stimulation, the site(s) where opiate drugs modulate dopamine-mediated effects on reinforcement, and whether or not non-dopaminergic neurons can independently mediate reinforcement. Exciting new technical advances, such as conditioned place preferences, intracranial microinjection, and self-administration of drugs, and new techniques for measuring the specificity of drug effects on reinforcement, are thoroughly explained. Future research directions are outlined.