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Tables of Contents for Words and Phrases
Chapter/Section Title
Page #
Page Count
Figures, Concordances and Tables
xi
Acknowledgements
xii
Data Conventions and Terminology
xiv
Notes on Corpus Data and Software
xvi
PART I Introduction
1
54
Words in Use: Introductory Examples
3
21
Text and Discourse: Some Distinctions
5
1
Language, Action, Knowledge and Situation
6
1
Words and Expectations
7
1
Language, Logic and Truth
8
1
Common-sense Knowledge
9
2
Linguistic Conventions
11
2
Possible and Actual
13
6
Example 1: the ambiguity of SURGERY
13
1
Example 2: the (non-)ambiguity of BANK
14
2
Example 3: the days of the week
16
1
Example 4: lonely hearts ads
17
2
Summary and Implications
19
2
Background and Further Reading
21
1
Topics for Further Study
22
2
Words, Phrases and Meanings: Basic Concepts
24
31
Terminology
24
1
Words: Word-forms and Lemmas
25
4
Example: the lemmas CONSUME and SEEK
27
2
Collocation
29
1
Words and Units of Meaning
30
2
Delexicalization
32
2
Denotation and Connotation
34
1
Relational Lexical Semantics
35
4
Semantic fields
35
1
Synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms
36
3
Frequent and Less Frequent Words
39
4
Content and function words: lexical density
39
2
Core vocabulary
41
2
Two Examples
43
6
Bloomfield's analysis of SALT
43
2
CAUSE problems and CAUSE amusement
45
4
Summary and Implications
49
1
Background and Further Reading
50
1
Topics for Further Study
51
4
PART II Case Studies
55
140
Words in Phrases 1: Concepts, Data and Methods
57
23
Background
57
3
Communicative Competence
60
1
Corpus Methods: Observing Patterns
61
1
Terminology
62
4
Corpus, Concordance, Data-base
66
1
The Cobuild Collocations Data-base on CD-ROM
67
4
The corpus
67
2
The data-base
69
1
Precision and recall
70
1
Data for Semantics and Pragmatics
71
1
Summary and Implications
72
1
Appendix 1: Measures of Statistical Significance
73
2
Appendix 2: Further Notes on the Data-base
75
2
Background and Further Reading
77
1
Topics for Further Study
78
2
Words in Phrases 2: A Case Study of the Phraseology of English
80
20
Frequency of Phraseological Units
80
1
Strength of Attraction: Word-forms, Lemmas and Lexical Sets
81
3
Lexical Profiles: Comprehensive Coverage of Data
84
3
Example 1: lexical profile for resemblance
85
1
Example 2: lexical profile for reckless
85
1
Example 3: lexical profile for backdrop
86
1
Example 4: lexical profile for doses
86
1
A Model of Extended Lexical Units
87
9
Example 5: lexical profile for UNDERGO
89
6
Example 6: lexical profile for chopped
95
1
Summary and Implications
96
1
Background and Further Reading
97
1
Topics for Further Study
97
3
Words in Texts 1: Words, Phrases and Text Cohesion
100
23
Words and Co-text
100
1
Routine and Creativity
101
1
Variable Phrases and Textual Cohesion
102
1
Antonyms and Synonyms
103
2
Discourse Prosodies
105
3
Lexical Cohesion: Textual Examples
108
9
Example 1: just large enough to see with the naked eye
108
4
Example 2: causing untold damage
112
3
Example 3: causing growing pains and undergoing a transition
115
1
Example 4: undergoing rapid star formation
115
2
Collocations and Coherence
117
3
Summary and Implications
120
1
Background and Further Reading
121
1
Topics for Further Study
122
1
Words in Texts 2: A Case Study of a Short Story
123
22
Public Data and Replicable Experiments
123
1
Lexis and Text Structure
124
2
Analysis 1: Frequency Statistics (Descending Frequency Order)
126
3
Frequency of function words: statistics
126
1
Interpretation
127
1
Frequency of content words: statistics
127
1
Interpretation
128
1
Analysis 2: Frequency Statistics (Keywords)
129
1
Analysis 3: Frequency Statistics (Order of Occurrence)
130
3
Statistics
130
2
Interpretation
132
1
Analysis 4: A Vocabulary-management Profile
133
7
Types and tokens, vocabulary and text
133
1
Youmans's method
134
1
`Eveline'
135
5
A Further Note on Replication
140
1
Limitations on the Analyses
141
1
Summary and Implications
142
2
Background and Further Reading
144
1
Topics for Further Study
144
1
Words in Culture 1: Case Studies of Cultural Keywords
145
25
Data and Citation Conventions
146
1
Text and Discourse
147
1
Case Study 1: Ethnic, Racial and Tribal
147
2
Case Study 2: Heritage and Care
149
5
Keyword: Heritage
150
1
Keyword: Care
151
3
Keyword: Community
154
1
Case Study 3: Proper Standards
154
7
Keyword: Standard
155
1
Keyword: Proper
156
4
Keyword: Trendy
160
1
Case Study 4: Little Red Riding Hood
161
3
Discursive Formations
164
2
Summary and Implications
166
2
Background and Further Reading
168
1
Topics for Further Study
168
2
Words in Culture 2: Case Studies of Loan Words in English
170
25
Data
170
1
The Etymological Fallacy
171
2
Language Change
173
1
Terminology
174
1
Words, Politics and National Stereotypes
175
2
Fields of Knowledge and Text-Types
177
1
A Case Study of German Loan Words in English
178
6
Frequency in the Vocabulary versus Frequency in Texts
184
1
False Friends: Flak, Blitz and Angst
185
3
The OED and Cultural Keywords
188
2
A Further Note on Vocabulary and Text
190
2
Summary and Implications
192
1
Background and Further Reading
192
1
Topics for Further Study
193
2
PART III Implications
195
50
Words, Phrases and Connotations: On Lexico-grammar and Evaluative Language
197
23
Connotations
197
1
Verbs, Discourse Prosodies and Point of View
198
8
Example 1: I was accosted in the street by a stranger
199
2
Example 2: fears lurking just below the surface
201
1
Example 3: Loiter and other verbs
202
1
Inter-collocations: the example of Street
203
3
A Lexico-syntactic Example: Make one's way somewhere
206
4
A Note on Syntax
210
1
A Cognitive View
210
1
A Syntactic Example: BE-passives and GET-passives
211
4
Summary and Implications
215
1
Background and Further Reading
216
2
Topics for Further Study
218
2
Data and Dualisms: On Corpus Methods and Pluralist Models
220
25
Principles
220
1
Problems?
221
5
Dualisms and Monisms
226
6
Cartesian dualism
226
3
Monism: version 1
229
1
Monism: version 2
229
2
The Saussurian paradox
231
1
Pluralist Positions
232
1
Brute and Institutional Facts
232
2
Physical, Psychological and Social
234
2
Worlds 1, 2 and 3
236
2
A Pluralist Model
238
1
Performance Data, Corpora and Routine Behaviour
239
3
Summary and Implications
242
2
Background and Further Reading
244
1
References
245
14
Name Index
259
4
Subject Index
263
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