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: As I read this unique volume on diabetes and pregnancy edited by Lois Jovanovic, I was struck by two themes that run throughout these collected chapters. First, this volume provides an excellent assessment of past problems, present management, and future challenges presented by dia betes in pregnancy. Orury's unique, longitudinal experience with diabetes iIi pregnancy provides the reader with an important overview, as does Coetzee's discussion of gestational diabetes. Current problems-deter mining the etiology and prevention of congenital malformations in infants of diabetic mothers (10M), assessment of antepartum fetal condition, management of pregnant patients with diabetic retinopathy, recognition of thyroid dysfunction in the pregnant diabetic woman, and understanding the multitude of metabolic sequelae observed in the 10M-are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, important considerations for future treatment and ther apy such as the adaptation of the fetal pancreas to the disordered intra uterine environment often seen in maternal diabetes, the use of fetal pan creatic tissue for transplantation, the application of exercise in the management of the pregnant woman with diabetes, and the long-term con sequences for the 10M provide an exciting glimpse into the future. The second important theme that emerges is the critical role the problem of diabetes in pregnancy has played in our understanding of maternal and fetal physiology. Clinical observations supported by basic research have emphasized the role of fetal fuels in teratogenesis.